Legal Education

Aidonojie, Paul Atagamen and Odojor Oyenmwosa Anne, 'Impact and Relevance of Modern Technological Legal Educational Facilities amidst the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Law Students of Edo University Iyamho' (2021) 5(4) KIU Journal of Humanities 7-19
Jurisdiction: Nigeria
Abstract: The study investigates the impact and relevance of modern technological educational facilities/resources amidst the Covid-19 pandemic, using Edo University Iyamho undergraduate law students as a case study. We administered 65 online structured questionnaires to law students of Edo University Iyamho. We used a descriptive and analytical method for analyzing data generated from the questionnaire. The study found that Edo University Iyamho is well equipped with ICT educational facilities/resources in the training of law undergraduate students, and it has been very viable in conducting e-learning/research amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. The study also found that poor network and epileptic power supply are some significant challenges often encountered in utilising modern technological educational facilities/resources. Given this, it was concluded and recommended that Nigeria Government should invest more on electricity to ensure steady power supply, and internet network providers should ensure effective and efficient network.

Allen, Renee Nicole et al, 'Recommendations for Online Teaching' (St. John's Legal Studies Research Paper No 20-0012, 22 July 2020)

Abstract: This is a collection of recommendations drawn from a variety of sources, including our colleagues, students, webinars, books, articles, podcasts, and our own experimentation. It is not our expectation that any individual professor would adopt all of these suggestions and indeed no one of us intends to. Instead, we hope that some of these are helpful to you. Some suggestions deal with the nuts and bolts of teaching online while others with how to accomplish broader goals.The general recommendations are broadly applicable to all courses taught online, while the individual class-type recommendations are intended to complement and augment the general recommendations. Additionally, these recommendations will be revised as we continue to learn from our experiences in online instruction.

Angelos, Claudia et al, 'The Bar Exam and the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Need for Immediate Action' (Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No 537, 22 March 2020)

Abstract: The novel coronavirus COVID-19 has profoundly disrupted life in the United States. Among other challenges, jurisdictions are unlikely to be able to administer the July 2020 bar exam in the usual manner. It is essential, however, to continue licensing new lawyers. Those lawyers are necessary to meet current needs in the legal system. Equally important, the demand for legal services will skyrocket during and after this pandemic. We cannot close doors to the profession at a time when client demand will reach an all-time high. In this brief policy paper, we outline six licensing options for jurisdictions to consider for the Class of 2020. Circumstances will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but we hope that these options will help courts and regulators make this complex decision. These are unprecedented times: We must work together to ensure we do not leave the talented members of Class of 2020 on the sidelines when we need every qualified professional on the field to keep our justice system moving.

Antoniou, Nicola et al, 'Royal Holloway, University of London and the Afghanistan and Central Asian Association: New Partnerships and Challenges During COVID-19 in the Clinical Legal World' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 155-178

Abstract: In January 2020, Royal Holloway, University of London set up a new Legal Advice Centre offering free legal advice to the local community, including building upon key partnerships to address unmet legal needs. This practice-paper discusses Royal Holloway's Legal Advice Centre (LAC) and the Afghanistan and Central Asian Association's (ACCA) collaborative approach and response to the global pandemic since March 2020. It will highlight the unprecedented challenges that they have faced, and their efforts to overcome them. In addition, the paper will discuss their research project, which provides Royal Holloway's student volunteers with the opportunity to gain unique multidisciplinary understandings of the effect of the pandemic in Afghanistan, and a chance to put their legal skills into practice by producing legal information to support local users of both Royal Holloway's LAC and the Law Clinic at the ACAA.This practice-paper includes a road map to Royal Holloway's long-term goal, namely, to work with ACAA to research the legal vulnerabilities of women in Afghanistan, with the aid of a research grant supporting international collaboration. Recent reports highlight that lockdown and quarantine measures will have a long-term impact on the basic rights and freedoms of Afghan women, who already face hardship.

Ashford, Chris, 'Law Teaching and the Coronavirus Pandemic' (2020) 54(2) The Law Teacher 167-168

Abstract: Outlines how law teaching has been affected by the coronavirus pandemic, highlighting key legal social media hubs and online resources.

Aucejo, Esteban et al, 'The Impact of COVID-19 on Student Experiences and Expectations: Evidence from a Survey' (NBER Working Paper No w27392, Social Science Research Network, 2020)

Abstract: In order to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on higher education, we surveyed approximately 1,500 students at one of the largest public institutions in the United States using an instrument designed to recover the causal impact of the pandemic on students' current and expected outcomes. Results show large negative effects across many dimensions. Due to COVID-19: 13% of students have delayed graduation, 40% lost a job, internship, or a job offer, and 29% expect to earn less at age 35. Moreover, these effects have been highly heterogeneous. One quarter of students increased their study time by more than 4 hours per week due to COVID-19, while another quarter decreased their study time by more than 5 hours per week. This heterogeneity often followed existing socioeconomic divides; lower-income students are 55% more likely to have delayed graduation due to COVID-19 than their higher-income peers. Finally, we show that the economic and health related shocks induced by COVID-19 vary systematically by socioeconomic factors and constitute key mediators in explaining the large (and heterogeneous) effects of the pandemic.

Barnett, Katy, 'Impact of COVID-19 on Academia' (2020) 94(11) Australian Law Journal 811-813

Abstract: It is, frankly, a difficult time to be a legal academic. Of course, I am writing from Melbourne, which has been particularly hard-hit by lockdown. But I think the effects of COVID-19 upon academia can be summarised as follows. First, there is a biting and persistent insecurity about what is going to happen to our jobs, and to our institutions more generally. Second, teaching has changed radically. Third, research has become very much second fiddle to staying afloat in the receding COVID-19 tide, as we keep our teaching going. Fourth, the amount of administration has expanded exponentially.

Becker, Ted, 'What Will (Or Might?) Law School Look Like This Fall?: Teaching in the Midst of a Pandemic' (2020) 99(8) Michigan Bar Journal 44-45

Abstract: January 2020 marked the start of a new semester for Michigan law schools. There was little reason to suspect it wouldn't be a semester like any other: for 3Ls, the start of the stretch run to graduation; for 1Ls, a chance to begin anew after the stress of their first set of law school final exams; for law school faculty, administrators, and staff, a return to the excitement and activity of crowded hallways and classrooms after the brief interlude of winter break. Classes began and proceeded as normal.

Bolton, Paul and Susan Hubble, 'Coronavirus: Easing Lockdown Restrictions in FE and HE in England' (House of Commons Library Briefing Paper No 8932, 2 July 2020)

Abstract: This House of Commons briefing paper discusses the impact of easing lockdown restriction on the FE and HE sectors in England. The paper outlines issues such as: re-opening campuses, prospective students numbers in 2020/21, temporary students numbers controls and delivery of courses in 2020/21. It also highlights issues such as the impact on graduate employability and the lack of catch up funding for FE colleges.

Bolton, Paul and Susan Hubble, 'Coronavirus: Implications for the Higher and Further Education Sectors in England' (House of Commons Library Briefing Paper No 8893, 17 April 2020)

Abstract: This House of Commons library briefing paper gives a brief overview of the possible impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the further and higher education sectors on England. It outlines the implications for funding and recruitment of students and sets out issues of concern to students.

Booth, Ross, 'Academics and Pandemics: A Student's Perspective during the Lockdown' (2020) 20(5) Without Prejudice 11-12

Abstract: For many people (including myself), the 1st of January 2020 felt like a day that couldn't come sooner. 2019 had been an especially difficult study year, with the leap from first to second year comparable to an Olympic long jump. However, what I didn't anticipate is that 2020 would spiral into disaster, almost from the get-go.

Clark, Annette, 'Diploma Privilege and the Future of the Bar Exam' (2020) 37(6) GPSolo 19-23
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted our lives and work in ways that were unimaginable only six months ago, as we've been faced with illness and death within our families and communities, a health care system that has been strained beyond capacity, the loss of jobs and increasing economic insecurity, anxiety and depression brought on by the fear of contracting the virus and the isolation imposed by our governments in trying to combat its spread, and so much more. For recent law school graduates, add to this demoralizing list the need to take and pass a bar exam in the middle of a public health crisis. At the same time, as dean of Seattle University School of Law, I followed the lead of some of my fellow deans across the country by reaching out to the body that administers the UBE in my state--the Chief Regulatory Counsel fort he Washington State Bar Association(WSBA) -- to request ajoint meeting with the bar and the deans of the other two law schools.

Codd, Helen et al, '"The Best of Times and the Worst of Times": Reflections on Developing a Prison-Based Business Law and Tax Clinic in the Midst of a Global Pandemic' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 39-61
Abstract: This practice report explores the dynamics, opportunities and challenges of developing an in-prison CLE programme offering advice on business law and tax, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic and the pre-existing constraints of prison security. This initiative has its roots in two clinical education initiatives at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN) - an existing Business Law Clinic based in the School of Justice, and an experimental low-income taxation advice project run by the UCLAN Business School. The interdisciplinary team taking forward this project includes staff with expertise and experience in taxation, CLE, business law, penology, and prison research.

Corbera, Esteve et al, 'Academia in the Time of COVID-19: Towards an Ethics of Care' (2020) 21(2) Planning Theory & Practice 191-199
Abstract: The global COVID-19 pandemic is affecting people's work-life balance across the world. For academics, confinement policies enacted by most countries have implied a sudden switch to home-work, a transition to online teaching and mentoring, and an adjustment of research activities. In this article we discuss how the COVID-19 crisis is affecting our profession and how it may change it in the future. We argue that academia must foster a culture of care, help us refocus on what is most important, and redefine excellence in teaching and research. Such re-orientation can make academic practice more respectful and sustainable, now during confinement but also once the pandemic has passed. We conclude providing practical suggestions on how to renew our practice, which inevitably entails re-assessing the social-psychological, political, and environmental implications of academic activities and our value systems.

Cunningham, Lawrence A, 'Adapting to Remote Law Practice through the Pandemic: Essays from the GWNY 2020 Business Lawyering Class' (GWU Legal Studies Research Paper No 2020-22, 2020)
Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic requires law schools to train students in the new art of remote legal services, to anticipate how this will change the practice of law and what it means to be 'practice ready.' The accompanying essays, by students caught in the middle of the epidemic during an immersive training program, offer reflections and visions. Written by students at the end of their spring 2020 semester in George Washington University's New York City (GWNY) business law program, the students explore how they must adapt their competencies accordingly.

Duane, Tim, 'Teaching Law in the Time of COVID-19' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3642820, 5 July 2020)
Abstract: Deciding whether, how, and when to re-open universities, colleges, and law schools is a complex problem. There are multiple considerations: public health in our communities and the communities our students may return to after their time here; the health of our students, faculty, and staff; the social, emotional, and mental toll of continuing to rely on remote teaching; and, the social, emotional, and mental benefits of engaging with each other. This article discusses the personal health risks for law school faculty of teaching in person and how cultural processes and institutional incentives may affect perceptions of and analysis of risks when deciding to teach in person.

Dutton, Yvonne and Seema Mohapatra, 'COVID-19 and Law Teaching: Guidance on Developing an Asynchronous Online Course for Law Students' [2021] St. Louis University Law Journal (forthcoming)
Abstract: Most law schools suspended their live classroom teaching in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and quickly transitioned to online programming. Although professors can be commended for rapidly adapting to an emergency situation, some commentators have nevertheless suggested that the emergency online product delivered to students was substandard. Based on our own experiences in designing and delivering online courses, we caution against embracing a broad-reaching, negative conclusion about the efficacy of online education. Indeed, much of this emergency online programming would be more properly defined as 'emergency remote teaching,' as opposed to 'online education.' Delivering online education to students involves more than giving the same classroom lecture on Zoom. Online education requires professors to design their courses to be delivered at a distance, with the goal being to create a course driven by pedagogy using technological tools to inform and enhance the learning experience. COVID-19 is going to be with us for the foreseeable future, and because some schools might be unable to bring all of their students back into the classroom in the fall, we urge faculty to prepare to deliver their courses online. Law schools and faculty should not wait for another emergency and should prepare to deliver at least some of their courses online in the fall. To aid with this transition, this Article offers some guidance on how to develop and implement an effective asynchronous distance-learning course for law students.

Ebner, Noam, '"Next Week, You Will Teach Your Courses Online": A Reassuring Introduction to Pandemic Pedagogy' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3552124, 10 March 2020)
Abstract: Many institutions of higher education in the US and around the world have responded to the 2020 coronavirus pandemic by closing down campus operations and moving all teaching activity online. This essay aims to provide a helpful, demystifying and comforting first read for faculty who have just received online transition orders from their institution.

Ebner, Noam and Sharon Press, 'Pandemic Pedagogy II: Conducting Simulations and Role Plays in Online, Video-Based, Synchronous Courses' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3557303, 19 March 2020)
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to continue to support teachers as they transition their classroom-based courses to an online, synchronous, video-based format in response to recent campus closures resulting from the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, which has rendered classroom gatherings unsafe.Written with teachers in the fields of negotiation, mediation, conflict management and dispute resolution in mind, this paper addresses these fields' central teaching tool: conducting simulations and role plays. However, the paper will also be helpful for teachers in fields such as business, nursing, law, social work, education and others, who also utilize simulations as a teaching tool. While our focus is on negotiation and mediation simulations, our suggestions should remain valid across many simulated processes, such as patient interviewing, client counseling, coaching, student advising, etc. We will note minor tweaks required for simulating other conflict resolution processes; teachers in other fields can consider how they might tweak our guidance to support simulations in other areas.

Franks, Mary Anne, 'Protecting Privacy and Security in Online Instruction: A Guide for Students and Faculty' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3668553, 6 April 2020)
Abstract: COVID-19 forced educational institutions all over the globe to shift abruptly to online instruction. Online instruction presents many challenges to both faculty and students accustomed to in-person learning. Among those challenges are serious equity concerns, including wide variation among students and faculty in terms of technological literacy, access to reliable Internet service and related 'digital divide' issues, time zones, caretaking responsibilities, and personal situations that may make remote learning difficult or impossible (e.g. unsafe home conditions). Another serious category of concern are privacy and security issues, which are the subject of this memo. The privacy and security issues raised by this memo are not exhaustive. This memo is only a preliminary and necessarily incomplete set of concerns and recommendations.

Froomkin, A Michael, 'The Virtual Law School, 2.0' (University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper No 3728114, 20 August 2020)
Abstract: Just over twenty years ago I gave a talk to the AALS called The Virtual Law School? Or, How the Internet Will De-skill the Professoriate, and Turn Your Law School Into a Conference Center. I came to the subject because I had been working on Internet law, learning about virtual worlds and e-commerce, and about the power of one-to-many communications. It seemed to me that a lot of what I had learned applied to education in general and to legal education in particular. It didn't happen. Or at least, it has not happened yet. In this essay I want to revisit my predictions from twenty years ago in order to see why so little has changed (so far). The massive convulsion now being forced on law teaching due to the social distancing required to prevent COVID-19 transmission presents an occasion in which we are all forced to rethink how we deliver law teaching. After discussing why my predictions failed to manifest before 2020, I will argue that unless this pandemic is brought under control quickly, the market for legal education may force some radical changes on us--whether we like it or not, and that in the main my earlier predictions were not wrong, just premature.

Ghori, Umair, 'Readapting Assessments in Response to COVID-19: Bond Law Perspective', Bond University Centre for Professional Legal Education Blog (14 April 2020)
Abstract: There was a time when we as academics used to love debating about online exams, its nuances, pros and cons...and then like all academics we went back to our favourite pastime: answering emails! And, of course, marking research essays and conducting our own research. The thought that we will ever depart from our comfortably set routine of traditional end-of-semester exams was limited to seminars and staff meetings... and then a one-in-a-hundred-year event jolted us into action. What was once an interesting option suddenly became the only viable way forward.

Greely, Henry T, 'Pandemic Fairness and Academia' (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences Article lsaa030
Abstract: The pandemic is not fair. And it does not care. Our societies should learn some lessons and make some changes, perhaps big changes. But what changes need to be made in society, and how, is too big a question for me to talk about in this editorial.But I can talk about changes needed to help one group that is also being unfairly hammered by this virus, one that I know well: academics with family responsibilities. Yes, these are problems of a relatively elite, secure, and well-paid group and less serious than those of many are losing homes, friends, and families due to the pandemic, but, for us academics, they are our problems. We can and should do something to mitigate them.

Griggs, Marsha, 'An Epic Fail' (2020) 64(1) Howard Law Journal (forthcoming)
Abstract: All at once, the U.S. found itself embattled with the threat of COVID-19, the new normal of social distancing, and the perennial scourge of racial injustice. While simultaneously battling those ills, the class of 2020 law graduates found themselves also contending with inflexible bar licensing policies that placed at risk their health, safety, and careers. During a global health pandemic, bar licensing authorities made the bar exam a moving target riddled with uncertainty and last-minute cancellations. This costly and unsettling uncertainty surrounding the bar exam administration was unnecessary because multiple alternatives were available to safely license new attorneys. A ball was dropped, and bar examiners at the state and national levels failed epically at an opportunity to be adaptive, decisive, and transparent, to the detriment of a class new lawyers and the public they will serve. The dogged insistence on status quo that led to the bar exam chaos of 2020, has placed the method and purpose of bar examination under national scrutiny. This Article offers a critical analysis of the systemic failure of bar licensure authorities to respond adaptively to crisis; explores alternative processes to measure minimal competency; and offers insight about the institutional mindset that has dominated our perception of the bar exam. An entire class of bar takers was held captive to conventional thinking at a time that called for compassion and innovation. Any failures on this bar exam are ours, not theirs.

Guilfoyle, Douglas, 'Teaching Public International Law in the Time of Coronavirus: Migrating Online' in Barrie Sander and Jason Rudall (eds), Opinio Juris Symposium on COVID-19 and International Law (2020)

Howells, Kaye, 'Simulated and Real-World Experience - The Challenge of Adapting Practice in Clinical Legal Education in Unprecedented and Challenging Times' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 196-213
Abstract: March 2020 was undoubtedly the beginning of unprecedented and challenging times for all. From an education perspective, such challenges have resulted in the re-design of module delivery, consideration of how we ensure the students receive high-quality teaching and are afforded the same opportunities, albeit within a virtual environment. This paper will consider the challenges faced and how we can adapt practice in CLE in these unprecedented and challenging times.

Huang, Peter H and Debra S Austin, 'Unsafe at Any Campus: Don't Let Colleges Become the Next Cruise Ships, Nursing Homes, and Meat Packing Plants' (University of Denver Legal Studies Research Paper No 20-16, 2020)
Abstract: The decision to educate our students via in-person or online learning environments while COVID-19 is unrestrained is a false choice, when the clear path to achieve our chief objective safely, the education of our students, can be done online. Our decision-making should be guided by the overriding principle that people matter more than money. We recognize that lost tuition revenue if students delay or defer education is an institutional concern, but we posit that many students and parents would prefer a safer online alternative to riskier in-person options, especially as we get closer to fall, and American death tolls rise. This Essay argues the extra stress of trying to maintain safety from infection with a return to campus will make teaching and learning less effective. While high density classrooms promote virus transmission and potentially super-spreader events, we can take the lessons we learned during the spring, and provide courses without the stressors of spreading the virus. We argue the socially responsible decision is to deliver compassionate, healthy, and first-rate online pedagogy, and we offer a vision of how to move forward into this brave new world.

Hudson, Emily, 'Copyright Guidance for Using Films in Online Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3667025, 4 August 2020)
Abstract: This Guidance discusses copyright options for using feature films and other audiovisual content in online teaching. It responds to concerns amongst UK higher education institutions (HEIs) that moving education online as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic raises new copyright risks. At many HEIs, in-person lectures may not be possible in the coming academic year due to COVID-related social distancing requirements. Even if some face-to-face teaching is possible, many students will undertake some or all of their studies remotely. One particular concern has been ensuring that Film Studies departments can screen feature films to students online, this being an essential part of those programmes. But lecturers in other disciplines also use a variety of films in their teaching, making these copyright questions of broader relevance. HEIs are keen to know whether they may use audiovisual content in online teaching without a licence. The key take-home message from this Guidance is that there are a number of exceptions in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) on which HEIs may be able to rely. It focuses in particular on the fair dealing exception for illustration for instruction in s. 32 of the CDPA, and quotation in s. 30(1ZA).

Johns, Fleur, 'Songs and Static: Legalities of White Noise' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3738405, 27 November 2020)
Abstract: This paper was delivered as a keynote talk at the 13th Annual Doctoral Forum on Legal Theory, 'Sirens + Silences: Law in Lockdown', co-hosted by Melbourne Law School and UNSW Law. Responding to the convenors' invitation to reflect on 'a year marked by upheaval and stasis', it explores how legal scholars in various settings might plan a route out of the global COVID-19 pandemic that is not simply a return home. Five legal and political 'songs' in broad circulation are identified - songs of salvation, separation, suspension, stagnation, and absurdity - and arguments made for resisting some of their appeals. Instead, the paper suggests, legal scholars might do well to look to the commonplace normativity of survival: the ceaseless static of making do and getting by. By planning and organizing around some of the ways that people have lived the pandemic, legal scholars might perhaps become attuned to possible ways of living lawfully without casting sectors of the population into surplus.

Johnston-Walsh, Lucy and Alison Lintal, 'Tele-Lawyering and The Virtual Learning Experience: Finding the Silver Lining for Remote Hybrid Externships & Law Clinics after the Pandemic' (2021) Akron Law Review (forthcoming)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has rocked the world in innumerable ways. This Article argues that the COVID-19 pandemic has a silver lining for law students in experiential learning programs. The pandemic has forced law schools across the country to fully utilize remote learning technology. The pandemic similarly forced courts to accept virtual tools in an environment that had previously relied primarily on in-person appearances. The lessons that law faculty and judges have learned from the pandemic will be permanent and may change the methods of operation going forward. Law schools that embrace the lessons they learned can help their law students and graduates be better prepared for a new practice environment, as distance learning and virtual law practice are likely here to stay. This article discusses why, despite what some may think, remote learning can happen successfully with experiential education and why virtual experiences will benefit students, their employers, and the public in the future. This article offers a guide as to how one law school, with a long history of remote delivery3, made this pivot, and offers concrete guidance for other schools that might want to continue using virtual technology to help deliver experiential education post-pandemic.In Part II of this article, we describe the legal academy's historic resistance to remote learning and the standards that govern experiential learning. We analogize law school resistance to remote experiential learning to the resistance of parts of our judiciary system in embracing remote court operations. In Part III, we document the way in which COVID changed the world of legal education and the courts. In Part IV, we offer our thesis that virtual or hybrid legal practice is here to stay, and virtual experiential learning is essential training for the modern law student. In Part V, we discuss several pedagogical modifications that should be made to address challenges that arise from the virtual practice format and how to most effectively teach law students. Additionally, we discuss best practices for designing fully remote and hybrid clinic and externship courses. Lastly, in Part VI, we discuss the broader lessons on how remote work in experiential settings can lead the way for transforming modern legal education post-pandemic and provide concrete guidance on how to do so. Finally, we offer an appendix, outlining some practical guidance and a checklist to utilize when designing remote or hybrid externships and clinics.

Jones, Mark L et al, 'It's Alright, Ma, It's Life and Life Only: Are Colleges and Universities Legally Obligated during the Coronavirus Pandemic to Exempt High-Risk Faculty from In-Person Teaching Requirements?' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3684190, 1 September 2020)
Abstract: After hurriedly transitioning to online learning when the coronavirus pandemic burst onto the scene during spring semester 2020, colleges and universities across the U.S. spent much of the spring and summer deciding how to proceed in the fall. Should all courses continue to be taught entirely online? Should all return to in person? Is the best answer instead some sort of hybrid curriculum? Because the pandemic has defied prediction at every turn, colleges and universities not going entirely online can't help but know that at any point during the semester they may suddenly be forced to revisit and revise their decision. Furthermore, after a summer in which the virus continued to infect U.S. residents at an alarming rate, colleges and universities are surely on notice that the pandemic should figure front and center in their planning as they think about in-person vs. online instruction for spring semester 2021.We believe that, for the duration of this pandemic, a college or university planning to offer any in-person classes has a moral obligation not to require any faculty members to teach in person who, out of concern for their own physical or emotional well-being or for that of another member of their household, ask to teach online instead. For now, however, we leave it to others to discuss more fully colleges' and universities' moral obligations. Our topic is colleges' and universities' legal obligations to allow faculty to opt for online, rather than in-person, teaching during this pandemic, and within that topic, we limit our focus to the group of faculty whom we believe colleges and universities have the clearest legal obligation to protect - those who, according to the criteria identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, appear to be most vulnerable to getting seriously ill or even dying if they contract the coronavirus. In the language of the CDC, our focus is faculty members 'at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19' - a group that we call 'CDC high-risk faculty.' According to the CDC, anyone is high risk who has reached age 65 or who has one of various specific medical conditions, including cancer, chronic kidney disease, pregnancy, hypertension, and more. We outline various arguments that colleges and universities are legally obligated during this pandemic to exempt CDC high-risk faculty from any in-person teaching requirement. Two of the four legal sources upon which we rely are federal statutes that qualify as major statements of national policy - the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. The other two sources are important state-law doctrines with strong support in the American Law Institute's most recent restatement of the law of torts - protection from intentional infliction of physical harm, and protection from intentional infliction of emotional distressOur hope is that our arguments will provide college and university leaders with a perspective that will prompt them to recognize the great importance of adopting an exemption policy that at a minimum frees all CDC high-risk faculty from any requirement to teach in person. Perhaps they would adopt such a policy simply to avoid possible legal liability. Ideally, however, they would do so at least in part out of a recognition that a college or university policy at odds with legal sources as weighty as the four under discussion is a policy that speaks very poorly for the institutions they are charged with leading. The fact that it's difficult to place a dollar value on a college's or university's reputation for fairness and humaneness doesn't mean that a policy that tarnishes that reputation is not very costly to the institution. We have no doubt that it is.

Kanter, Arlene S, 'Can Faculty Be Forced Back to Campus?' [2020] (16 June) Higher Education Chronical 1-4
Abstract: This essay discusses the right of faculty to work from home during this COVID-19 pandemic. Various laws, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, provide protections for faculty who do not feel safe returning to campus.

Khaydarova, Umida, 'Importance of the New Decree on Support and Promotion of Legal Education Signed During the Pandemic' [2020] Review of Law Sciences 276-270
Abstract: In subsequent integration processes, any area in the society should remain and continue to function even after the pandemic. This is also relevant in the higher education system. The announcement of the pandemic led to the introduction of remote organization of the educational process and the creation of online classes. At the same time, the adoption by the President of a decree on the fundamental improvement of legal education and science in the Republic of Uzbekistan increased attention to education in these processes. The article discusses the significance of the decree and answers to the questions arisen in this area.

Kohn, Nina A, 'Teaching Law Online: A Guide for Faculty' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3648536, 10 July 2020)
Abstract: As law school classes move online, it is imperative that law faculty understand not only how to teach online, but how to teach well online. This article therefore is designed to help law faculty do their best teaching online. It walks faculty through key choices they must make when designing online courses, and concrete ways that they can prepare themselves and their students to succeed. The article explains why live online teaching should be the default option for most faculty, but also shows how faculty can enhance student learning by incorporating asynchronous lessons into their online classes. It then shows how faculty can set up their virtual teaching space and employ diverse teaching techniques to foster an engaging and rigorous online learning environment. The article concludes by discussing how the move to online education in response to COVID-19 could improve the overall quality of law school teaching.

Kunc, Francois, 'Law in the Time of Coronavirus' (2020) 94(5) Australian Law Journal 315-319
Abstract: What follows are some vignettes of law in the time of coronavirus, written perhaps more with an eye to the interested readers of the future than for those of you reading it today, for whom this crisis is a pressing reality - the parliament, the courts, solicitors, barristers, law schools, and the future.

Matt, Tia Ebarb, Natasha Bellinger and Kim McDonald, 'The Silver Lining in the Black Cloud of COVID-19' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 135-154
Abstract: Little did we imagine that the effects of COVID-19 would ultimately make us a stronger and more accessible clinic. The sudden halt of providing in-person services clouded the entire University of Exeter clinical programme with uncertainty. However, we could not simply stop our clinical provision - we had existing clients that still needed assistance, as well as students who were taking the clinic as a module. Furthermore, we wanted to continue servicing the community. To consider converting to a remote service, there are fundamental questions a university clinical programme must address: Why does the clinic exist? What are the goals of the clinic and can they still be achieved by a remote service? This paper outlines the process of converting our in-person clinic to a remote service, by detailing steps taken such as developing a remote operating student training manual, establishing a new case triage system, utilising Zoom sessions, and developing a user focused website. It reflects upon the process of finding effective ways of communicating and collaborating with students and clients, while managing and mitigating the potential barriers to technology. Both the successes and the challenges taught us more about the human connection and the human experience. Ultimately, the lessons learned from a swift shut down to reopening a fully remote clinic made us better organised, better communicators, and more accessible for clients. Once we safely return to in-person meetings, the value gained in providing a remote service will remain embedded in our offering, committing us to a hybrid service of in-person and remote meetings to provide a better service to our clients. For the next academic year, our strengthened service enables us to move seamlessly between a fully remote service and our new hybrid model with minimal disruption, should COVID-19 continue to cast a dark cloud.

McCarthy, Claudine, 'Know How to Address Legal Issues Related to E-Learning during Pandemic' (2021) 21(6) Campus Legal Advisor 1-5
Abstract: The shift from in-person to remote learning solutions has made it more important than ever to understand the role copyright laws play in online class presentations, Jeffrey D. Peterson, Esq., a Partner with the law firm of Michael Best & Friedrich LLP in Wisconsin, explained during a webinar hosted by the Employment Law Alliance.

McFaul, Hugh et al, 'Taking Clinical Legal Education Online: Songs of Innocence and Experience' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 6-38
Abstract: In common with the wider higher education sector, clinical legal education practitioners are facing the challenge of how to adapt their teaching practices to accommodate the restrictions imposed by governmental responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. Facilitating distance learning via online technologies has unsurprisingly become an area of increasing interest in the hope that it may offer a potential solution to the problem of how to continue teaching undergraduates in a socially distanced environment.This paper seeks to provide clinical legal education practitioners with evidence-based insights into the challenges and opportunities afforded by using digital technologies to deliver clinical legal education. It adopts a case study approach by reflecting on the Open Justice Centre's four-year experience of experimenting with online technologies to provide meaningful and socially useful legal pro bono projects for students studying a credit bearing undergraduate law module. It will analyse how a number of different types of pro bono activity were translated into an online environment, identify common obstacles and posit possible solutions. In doing so, this paper aims to provide a timely contribution to the literature on clinical legal education and offer a means to support colleagues in law schools in the UK and internationally, who are grappling with the challenges presented by taking clinical legal education online.

McGee, Robert W, 'Does Closing a University Because of the Corona Virus Constitute Negligence or a Breach of Fiduciary Duty?' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3590805, 1 May 2020)
Abstract: This paper reviews the current Corona virus situation, then examines the legal definitions of negligence and fiduciary duty in an attempt to determine whether closing a university because of health concerns over the Corona virus might result in legal liability for the university's board members and relevant university administrators.

McPeak, Agnieszka, 'Adaptable Design: Building Multi-Modal Content for Flexible Law School Teaching' (2021) 65 St. Louis University Law Journal (forthcoming)
Abstract: This essay discusses ways to build course content that can easily toggle between face-to-face and online modes of instruction. It is meant as a quick, practical guide for law professors faced with challenging teaching circumstances due to Covid-19 and campus closures. This idea for 'adaptable design' is based largely on my own experience moving face-to-face courses online. I try to avoid delving too much into technical definitions and pedagogical theory, instead focusing on personal experience and examples. Although Covid-19 has created an immediate need for adaptable design, I hope this essay proves to be a resource beyond our immediate reactions to a global pandemic and can be useful for anyone seeking to innovate in their law school courses.

McPeak, Agnieszka, 'Asynchronous Online Law School Teaching: A Few Observations' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3553094, 12 March 2020)
Abstract: This short paper discusses my experiences designing asynchronous online law school courses. It is meant to serve as a quick resource for professors moving classes online to deal with Covid-19 live class cancellations.

Myronets, Oksana M et al, 'Current Issues and Prospects of Modern Higher Legal Education in Conditions of the Fight against COVID-19' (2020) 37(65) Cuestiones Politicas 438-456
Abstract: The purpose of the document is to determine the current problems and the possible directions for the development and improvement of higher legal education in the modern challenges and conditions of the pandemic and post-pandemic of COVID-2019, under the hypothesis that the upcoming emergency is affirmed again. General-scientific and special-legal methods of cognition have been used. Through the use of the dialectical method, the current problems of modern legal education have also been identified, their foundations have been investigated and instructions have been sought to improve legal education and the quality of young lawyers in the educational environment of the pandemic. In conclusion, it is highlighted that the findings found in the research can be useful for higher education teachers who are constantly adapting to the new conditions of professional activity in the field of legal education, in the scene of pandemic and the ordering after the pandemic, with particular emphasis on specialists focused on developing suggestions and improving the quality of legal education in the context of the global challenges imposed by COVID-2019.

Nathenson, Ira Steven, 'Teaching Law Online: Yesterday and Today, But Tomorrow Never Knows' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3731103, 15 November 2020)
Abstract: If The Beatles were to write an album about COVID-19, they might sing, 'Yesterday, all our troubles seemed so far away, but now it looks as though Zoom's here to stay.' The Beatles were creatures of the 1960s, and to all our benefit, they chose to sing rather than go to law school. But legal educators in 2020 and beyond need to grapple with the mysteries of online teaching, something that many of us ignored 'yesterday,' and which all of us will have to grapple with today and tomorrow. So what is online legal education? Is it the use of online casebooks? CALI lessons? Websites with handouts? Online books? Zoom lectures? Is it 'Live' (synchronous) or is it 'Memorex' (asynchronous)? Is online legal education merely a set of technological tools or does it involve a set of dedicated pedagogies? Is it really worse than in-person teaching or is it just different? Once the pandemic ends, should online teaching continue in some form?Such questions are starting points for a 'Magical Mystery Tour' that some legal educators have taken and others have avoided, but which none can ignore any longer. Although the role of 'online' in legal education has grown over the past several decades, online teaching became a necessity in Spring 2020 when the COVID-19 pandemic shuttered brick-and-mortar classrooms nationwide. Because online teaching is now necessary, it is also problematic, and law schools and legal educators need to carefully consider when, where, and how to effectively use online tools and techniques in legal education. With a Beatles lyric or two, this essay reflects on the author's experiences with the yesterday, today, and tomorrow of online legal education. It closes with that most scholarly of prescriptions, a listing of Top Ten hits that legal educators should consider when teaching online.

Ncube, Caroline, 'The Musings of a Copyright Scholar Working in South Africa: Is Copyright Law Supportive of Emergency Remote Teaching?' (Afronomicslaw COVID-19 Symposium on International Economic Law in the Global South (May 2020), Symposium II: Intellectual Property, Technology and Agriculture)
Abstract: Introduction: As we were reminded on twitter recently, The Statute of Anne, the world's first copyright law, came into effect on April 10, 1710, three centuries and a decade ago. Its title reads in part, 'An Act for the Encouragement of Learning...'. The veritable links between copyright and the right to education have been established by several scholars ...The Statute of Anne is a forebear of South African copyright law which has its roots in English copyright law ... Against this background, this post asks 'is copyright still true to its original intent and is it supportive of emergency remote teaching in alignment with the right to education?'

Neacsu, Dana and James M Donovan, 'Academic Law Libraries and Scholarship: Communication, Publishing, and Ranking' (2020) 49(4) Journal of Law and Education (forthcoming)
Abstract: The context in which academic libraries operate is fast evolving, and the current COVID pandemic has underscored the new demands on libraries to reinvent themselves and their scholarship role. The library's role has always been focused on scholarly dissemination and preservation, more recently by archiving their faculty work on mirror sites known as academic repositories. Libraries connect scholarship and users by offering the space for users to come and use the archived knowledge. However, if historically their role was to collect and provide secure access to sources, that role is in the midst of radical transformations. In our age of the Internet, the connection between knowledge and library users has become more complex. First, users have formed attachments to print or digital knowledge according to the type of reading they engage in, moving fluidly from one to the other. In that respect, as James M. Donovan has recently explained, the library space remains an intrinsic facilitator of a type of academic reading. Second, when knowledge is accessed digitally, the flow of content becomes decentralized. Instead of expecting their needs to be found in the library, users seek out resources wherever they may be stored, anywhere on the planet. More interestingly, technology enables users to develop a different connection to the digital content, creating it while accessing it, from the mere 'likes' or 'dislikes' to virtual annotations through reader comments, for instance. Either way, libraries are seeing their passive intermediary role dissipate: even when shelving knowledge, as this article advocates, libraries may choose to become engaged in new ways as active participants in the scholarship enterprise. After reviewing the background against which these challenges have appeared, we suggest that libraries define for themselves a more active role within scholarship production, which we define to include publication, distribution, access, and the process of scholarship impact assessment. The argument rests on the practical considerations of business organization. It is simply good business for law schools to curate the output of faculty scholarship, and many already do it through faculty repositories. Given that foundation, it seems logical for the library, as the institution which already manages those repositories, and which supports the students' law reviews and journals in numerous ways, to step up and manage the full range of scholarship publication. This library management of student-edited scholarship production could cover all its aspects, excluding editorial publication decision and manuscript editing, from training and assisting to gather sources for cite checks, adding journal content to institutional platforms, administering technology services, and advising on copyright.Another reason for supporting a more active role for libraries in the scholarly enterprise rests on the flaws of the current academic ranking of scholarship. Without human input, no automated system--including the newly-promoted Hein database--can meaningfully contextualize the value of a citation. For instance, only librarians can find the equivalent (if any) of scholarship cited and reviewed in the NEW YORKER or the NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS among scholarship cited in another law journal or review article, or calibrate the value of an article citation in a court decision. To the extent there is agreement that quantifying scholarship citation impact requires human expertise, then we argue for librarian expertise.

Neumann, Richard K, 'Violations During the Pandemic of Law School Faculties' Authority to Decide Methods of Instruction' (Hofstra University Legal Studies Research Paper (forthcoming), December 2020)
Abstract: During the pandemic, some universities have required as much 'in person' teaching as possible everywhere on campus -- including a university's law school. Universities and their administrators who did this were wrong for three reasons. First, their fears that students would not enroll unless taught 'in person' turned out to be unfounded. National postgraduate and professional school enrollment, including law school enrollment, actually increased even though almost half the country's colleges and universities began the fall semester or quickly went primarily or entirely online. Second, these weren't decisions about public health alone. They were also decisions about the quality of education. 'In person' usually turned out to be an untested and primitive form of hybrid instruction that has no track record and has never been used on any scale before. During the pandemic the choice has never been between genuine 'in person' teaching and online teaching. Public health concerns continually put some students online because of contagion risks. The real choice has been between fully online teaching (nobody in a classroom) and simultaneous hybrid teaching (some students in a classroom while others participate online). In many but not all situations, simultaneous hybrid teaching is demonstrably worse than fully online teaching. Third, university administrators who made unilateral decisions about methods of instruction violated basic rules on shared governance under the nationally authoritative 1966 AAUP Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities. The AAUP has already begun investigating some colleges and universities on this basis. And to the extent a university's unilateral decisions included a law school, the university's actions also violated the American Bar Association's accreditation standards and the Association of American Law Schools' Bylaws. A law school needs ABA accreditation for its graduates to take the bar exam, and nearly all law schools are AALS members. The ABA accreditation standards and AALS Bylaws combine to require that decisions about modality -- modes of teaching -- be made by a law school's faculty, not by administrators elsewhere and imposed on the law school.

Nixon-Jones, Latisha, 'Beyond Recovery: Reimagining the Legal Academy's Role in Disaster Law' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3624340, 10 June 2020)
Abstract: This article proposes expanding the legal academy's role in responding to disasters and emergencies, specifically through creating disaster clinics that take a community-based lawyering approach. The article is one of the first to identify the need for community-based disaster legal clinical education that goes beyond the immediate response phase. It also proposes creating a disaster legal pipeline from the clinic through postgraduation employment. The article furthers the literature's discussion of the need for sustained disaster legal education. As the global pandemic caused by COVID-19 coronavirus continues to impact vulnerable populations and the frequency of natural disasters continues to increase, this article provides a blueprint to law school faculty and administrators on the process of starting a new clinic or redesigning an existing clinic into a long-term disaster-related clinic. Additionally, the article provides a timeline of disaster legislation that has evolved to provide a robust background for seminar courses. The article draws from the author's expertise in creating two disaster clinics and multiple disaster and environmental justice courses. The article looks at the creation of the disaster legal clinic, examines the evolution of the popular Equal Justice Works disaster corps, and provides best practices for designing the course. The article provides insight on the distinctive ability of law schools to foster community-based solutions, as demonstrated through the lens of successful clinics.

Obaid, Tareq, Rabah Abdaljawad and Mohanad Abumandil, 'Higher Education Under Quarantine: What Insights Palestinian Institutes Can Share?' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3665685, 2 August 2020)
Abstract: The spread of the coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 is a public health emergency with economic and social ramifications in Palestine and across the world. While the impacts on business are well documented, education is also facing the largest disruption in recent memory.The COVID-19 is significantly disrupting all aspects of higher education, fundamentally changing how universities operate by sparking the boom of online learning. The impact of this disruption is necessarily transformative, requiring us to rethink how we learn has been an issue of growing importance for many years. The coronavirus and ensuing lockdown currently in effect means that rethinking education is no longer something for a fun offsite in a nice hotel at the end of the semester, but an existential challenge to every dean and president and headmaster and principal around the world. Right now Universities are shuttered. Exams are canceled. Layoffs of professors and teachers will inevitably follow. Brand-name schools will, in time, bounce back. Many other less prestigious places will never reopen their doors. At this moment of extreme peril, and in the spirit of turning crisis into opportunity, educators and administrators at every scholastic level - and those responsible for training employees in the wider workforce - must urgently reassess their existing practices and protocols. They need to reimagine how to operate in a world of remote presence, social distancing and considerable economic stress.

Odeku, Kolawole Sola, 'Conducting Law Pedagogy Using Virtual Classroom in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic: Opportunities and Existing Obstacles' (2021) 11(1) Journal of Educational and Social Research 101-112
Abstract: Globally, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting the way of life, affecting not only humans' health, but also the education sector and law pedagogy is no exception. In South Africa, before the COVID-19 pandemic, most pedagogies at the universities were being conducted face-to-face. The pandemic has inadvertently exposed the strengths and weaknesses of university in conducting pedagogies. Consequently, various educational institutions became creative, using their ICT staff to train teaching staff members on how to use various multi-modal technologies and devices to conduct pedagogy as face-to-face pedagogy is restricted. Law lecturers who pride themselves in conducting pedagogies through face-to-face were also coopted and retrained considering that most of the law lecturers are broadly conservatives and not technologically savvy. There is paucity of any scholarly information from law as a discipline hence, this paper fills the lacuna by looking at law pedagogy in the era of COVID-19 pandemic.

Oranburg, Seth, 'Distance Education in the Time of Coronavirus: Quick and Easy Strategies for Professors' (Duquesne University School of Law Research Paper No 2020-02, 2020)
Abstract: A worldwide pandemic is forcing schools to close their doors. Yet the need to teach students remains. How can faculty - especially those who are not trained in technology-mediated teaching - maintain educational continuity? This Essay provides some suggestions and relatively quick and easy strategies for distance education in this time of coronavirus. While it is written from the perspective of teaching law school, it can be applied to teaching other humanities such as philosophy, literature, religion, political theory, and other subjects that do not easily lend themselves to charts, graphs, figures, and diagrams. This Essay includes an introductory technology section for those techno-phobic faculty who are now being required to teach online, and it concludes with five straightforward steps to start teaching online quickly.

Oranburg, Seth and David Tamasy, 'Corporations Hybrid: A COVID Case Study on Innovation in Business Law Pedagogy' (Duquesne University School of Law Research Paper No 2020-03, 2020)
Abstract: This essay, written by a law professor and a student teaching assistant, shares suggestions intended to increase student engagement and improve learning outcomes by creating and using digital teaching assets effectively. The essay briefly summarizes the literature on traditional and online law school pedagogy and then explains the Hybrid Corporation class we taught during the Spring 2020 COVID-19 emergency. We report on what worked well in our real-world classroom environment and what worked when we had to shift totally to an online delivery format. We found that good videos are critical, and we explain why and how we created what the students found to be effective instructional videos. We also explain how to juxtapose videos and other passive learning content with active digital teaching assets such as quizzes, essay tests, reflective journals, and discussion boards, all intended to enhance student learning and engage students in our virtual classroom. Following the essay we have appended a case brief template to serve as a resource for law teachers who want to use the case law method online and for students who want a more structured approach to reading cases.

Parker, Beth, 'Law School Exams during a Pandemic: One Law School's Experience' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3679653, 20 August 2020)
Abstract: In 2020, toward the end of the Winter semester, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted life across the globe. Institutions, including law schools, felt the widespread effects of this public health crisis. Law schools were forced to move entire curriculums online in record time and consider how they were going to administer final exams. There is no precedent or manual for how to do this successfully. The pressure of the high stakes law school final exam that the law student's entire grade and ranking rest upon is stressful, to say the least. Law students are on edge during final exams during normal times, but as the United States became overwhelmed by the COVID-19 pandemic, universities sent students, faculty, and staff home to finish the semester online and were left with a myriad of issues to address. One issue that arose was how to deliver final exams in a completely online format while maintaining the integrity of the law school exam. This article discusses the pivot to flexibility that one law school had to make, under emergency conditions, and with limited resources. Part I describes the law school final exam pre-COVID 19, Part II describes the pre-planning process, Part III discusses the building process, Part IV discusses the administrating process, and Part V explores some of the lessons learned from the experience with exams and suggests how to move forward in an uncertain world.

Robinson, Jenna and Sumantra Maitra, 'Higher Education After COVID-19: Policy Brief' (James G Martin Centre for Academic Renewal, Policy Brief, 17 May 2020)
Abstract: The current crisis will raise existential questions for small and mid-tier institutions. Only universities with massive endowments and highly competitive admissions will escape the effects of the coming enrollment cliff. Special coronavirus relief funding from state and federal governments will improve cash flow in the short term, but they are not permanent solutions. Colleges must act now to cut unnecessary expenses while preserving core academic functions.

Ryznar, Margaret, 'Common Mistakes in Online Teaching' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3634399, 24 June 2020)
Abstract: This article explains five common mistakes in online teaching and how to fix them. To do so, this article draws on student comments coming from mid-semester surveys in an Online Trusts & Estates course, as well as focus groups on online law courses.

Ryznar, Margaret, 'Giving an Online Exam' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3684958, 2 September 2020)
Abstract: Invaluable guidance has emerged on online teaching during the time of coronavirus, but less so on online final exams. This Article fills this void by offering various methods to maintain the integrity of final exams administered online.

Ryznar, Margaret, 'What Works in Online Teaching' [2021] St Louis University Law Journal (forthcoming)
Abstract: This Article offers lessons from an empirical study of an Online Trusts & Estates course. More than 280 law students were surveyed over three semesters on what works well for them and what does not in this online course. Their top three answers in each category serve as guidance for faculty creating online courses. Extract (page 3): It is important to note that this Online Trusts & Estates course is fully asynchronous and was built over time. In an asynchronous course, teaching and learning is done through an online learning management system (in this case, Canvas), with lessons organized by modules containing prerecorded lectures by the professor, readings, supplemental videos, and student assessment activities that often receive faculty feedback. This differs from synchronous courses done live but online through video conferencing, such as Zoom, which most faculty adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic because they were confronted with an emergency and lacked the time to build a course in advance. Nonetheless, many of the lessons for asynchronous courses presented in this Article hold true for synchronous courses as well.

Sahijwani, Jharna, 'Legal Education and Pedagogy in the Virtual Environment: Experiences and Challenges' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3727245, 9 November 2020)
Abstract: Legal education is one of the most dynamic fields as it deals with varied interest groups and provides an array of programs including undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate and doctoral programs along with various courses and it is this diversity that raises very pertinent questions regarding the pedagogy to be employed. The researcher in this paper shall address these pedagogical questions with respect to the evolution of legal education and learning in India drawing parallels from across the world. The need for convergence of ideas regarding the teaching, understanding and learning of law between the faculties and students arise as knowledge sharing in today's world is not traditional anymore. The modern legal education focuses on exchange of information from all sides especially with the advent of Internet and the shift to virtual classrooms.In this paper, the researcher will analyze this need to shift virtual classrooms and examine various methods of teaching with special focus on the 'NETGEN'. The researcher shall also delve into the issue of change in the approaches of various law schools in India and in the world where online teaching is a mandated choice because of the pandemic due to the spread of the COVID-19 infection, leading to a lockdown in most of the countries. This shift from physical space to virtual space has raised concerns for the legal fraternity, however, for the educational institutions; the UGC and BCI in India have suggested certain changes to tackle such extraordinary circumstances. Yet, in such stressful times for the faculties, the students and even the staff, the challenges are manifold ranging from infrastructural limitations to connectivity to the transitions in the pedagogy. The researcher shall address these issues along with focusing on aligning the same with the primary objective of preparing the students not only for career prospects but also to cope with the diverse work environments available in the 'legal service industry'. Furthermore, the merits of online teaching and the need for educational continuity shall also be highlighted while providing some pedagogical suggestions for the faculties. The aim of this research is to acknowledge and concede with the transition in legal education from physical classrooms to online classrooms and successfully use the different learning models available for both the faculties and the students. In the end, the researcher shall focus on best practices regarding the use of technology to welcome new techniques while ensuring fulfillment of outcome based learning.

Sandoval, Catherine JK et al, 'Legal Education in the Era of COVID-19: Putting Health, Safety and Equity First' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3660221, 24 July 2020)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the traditional academic model of gathering people into physical classes into a high-risk activity. Legal education is a Critical Infrastructure sector that supports democratic access to the legal system and trains students to become ethical members of the legal profession and society. Debates about whether legal education should be delivered in person, online, or through a hybrid model highlight the safety culture gap in American legal education. This Article proposes an ethical framework that values safety, recognizes the inherent worth and dignity of every human being, and centers diversity and inclusion as the foundation for effective educational dialogue, to recommend online legal education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This Article's interdisciplinary team analyzes scientific studies on COVID-19 available to date, the virus's mutation which promotes infection, and the limits of mitigation measures in indoor classrooms where people gather for more than an hour at a time to discuss educational material and develop legal skills. It examines the disproportionate effects of COVID-19 on African-Americans, Native Americans, Latinx Americans, older Americans, and those with certain underlying health conditions that would foreseeably lead members of those groups to participate in class online. Those participating in person in a hybrid educational model are likely to be younger and less diverse. The hybrid classroom model cleaves students and faculty by race, ethnicity, tribe, age, and health, undermining commitments to diversity and inclusion that support educational dialogue and first amendment values. In person classes may drive viral mutation and endanger health and safety as people under 45, the largest age cohort for American law students, lead the surge in COVID-19 infection. The Internet's development creates the opportunity to deliver effective, synchronous, inclusive, ethical legal education. This Article concludes that legal education should be conducted online during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Saputri, Ade Ayu and Selly Septiandini, 'Online Learning Process According to Law Number 12 of 2012 Article 31 Concerning Distance Education During the Pandemic Period of COVID-19' (2020) 2(2) Kader Bangsa Law Review 247-263
Abstract: 2020 is a year that worries all countries, including Indonesia. This is due to the emergence of the Coron virus outbreak which has spread throughout the world. Initially the government did not follow the methods used by several other countries regarding the information provided about the corona COVID-19 virus, namely by taking a quick reaction to preventive socialization. The reason is that the Indonesian people are not worried about worrying issues, in addition to minimizing hoax news from a handful of irresponsible people. Finally, the Covid-19 outbreak is also a matter of concern for the community, because many Indonesians have been affected by this virus transmission. Therefore, the government took the initiative to adopt a large-scale social restriction policy where there were restrictions such as restrictions on transportation, doing work from home, carrying out teaching and learning activities at home online. So that it also has a direct impact on students as well as students in Indonesia. This study uses a qualitative research method with a literature approach (normative). The data obtained comes from several regulations, such as Governor Regulations and several other regulations and policies. The results of the study state that Indonesia has experienced a condition where the public's concern about Covid-19 is quite large so that government policy is needed to carry out large-scale social restrictions in an effort to break the chain of spreading the Covid-19 coronavirus.

Sneed, Thomas, 'The Effect of COVID-19 on Law Libraries: Are These Changes Temporary or a Sign of the Future?' (2020) 60(1) Washburn Law Journal 107-129

Extract (page 110): Due to the public health crisis, many of the traditional roles of the library were being altered spontaneously. These sudden changes, coupled with the reality that libraries often struggle for relevance in an ever-changing legal education landscape, force one to ask the existential question: what will come from this crisis and what will academic law libraries look like on the other side? This Article examines the responses from academic law libraries to COVID-19-related changes and emphasizes the need for strong communication skills and effective crisis management strategies from our library leaders. This Article also discusses which of the changes necessitated by the pandemic should be temporary and which of the changes speak to the future of academic law libraries.

Srichaiyarat, Panarairat and Ploykwan Lao-Amata, 'Legal Education During COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experience of a Thai Law School' (2020) 7(2) Asian Journal of Legal Education 228-230
Extract: If Covid-19 pandemic is like a Tsunami to education at all levels, online teaching and learning are like a lifebuoy to teachers and students. To survive the crisis, teachers and students are forced to rely on technology much more than they used to be. They have to overcome all impediments occurred in online education. However, to become a survivor is not an equal opportunity. For some students, access to online education is severely constrained by their financial status. The pandemic may stay with us for one or two years, then some people believe that online learning will be a new normal in education. On the contrary, many teachers and students still hope that all current abnormalities will vanish and they can be back to their traditional classrooms.

Sundquist, Christian, 'The Future of Law Schools: COVID-19, Technology, and Social Justice' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3665221, 1 August 2020)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare not only the social and racial inequities in society, but also the pedagogical and access to justice inequities embedded in the traditional legal curriculum. The need to re-envision the future of legal education existed well before the current pandemic, spurred by the shifting nature of legal practice as well as demographic and technological change. This article examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on legal education, and posits that the combined forces of the pandemic, social justice awareness and technological disruption will forever transform the future of both legal education and practice.

Sutton, Victoria, 'Law Student Attitudes about Their Experience in the COVID-19 Transition to Online Learning' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3665712, 31 July 2020)
Abstract: Law students from Texas Tech University were surveyed about their attitudes concerning online learning due to the COVID-19 transition, at the end of the spring semester 2020. Questions concerned obstacles to learning, experiences and perceptions. Among the most frequently cited obstacles for students were that students had to move (49%) from their physical location, they were impacted financially (60%) and they lacked reliable internet (40%). The impact of the disease itself was relatively small with only 10% reporting they were affected by someone having COVID-19. Concerns that the lack of time to design courses for online learning, may have soured students to the online experience were evident from the responses that 36% of students indicated they were less likely to take online classes in the future. Perhaps more surprisingly, 17% reported they were more likely to take online classes in the future. There was a difference between students who self-selected online courses in the spring semester compared with those experiencing the compulsory transition to all online classes. When students were asked whether they got as much from online learning as face to face courses, 55% of those self-selecting for online courses agreed; whereas 25% all law students disagreed with that statement. More than half of those who self-selected for online courses (55%) reported that their spring semester online course experience helped in the COVID-19 transition.

Thurston, Amanda and Diana Kirsch, 'Clinics in Time of Crisis: Responding to the COVID-19 Outbreak' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 179-195
Abstract: At the time of the COVID-19 lockdown in March 2020, Hertfordshire Law Clinic was still in its infancy. It had only opened its doors in October 2019 and was technically still in its 'pilot scheme' phase - with the official opening not due to take place until April 2020.

Tobias, Carl, 'The Federal Law Clerk Hiring Pilot and the Coronavirus Pandemic' (2020) 54(1) UC Davis Law Review Online 1-20
Abstract: Just when law students attained a comfort level with the arcane intricacies of the federal law clerk employment process, as increasingly exacerbated by the second year of an experimental hiring pilot plan, the coronavirus attacked the country and has been ravaging it ever since. To date, the virus has inflicted the most profound harm on the jurisdictions that comprise all of the 'coastal elite circuits' that span the District of Columbia north to Maine, as well as the United States Courts of Appeals for the Seventh and Ninth Circuits, which apply the pilot. This piece examines impacts that the coronavirus' rampant spread putatively has on law clerk employment and how students, courts, and judges can address these problematic circumstances.

Wallace, Amy L, 'Classroom to Cyberspace: Preserving Street Law's Interactive and Student-Centered Focus During Distance Learning' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 83-106
Abstract: This paper includes: a background on the New York Law School (NYLS) Street Law program and the relationship with its partner high school, The Charter High School for Law and Social Justice (CHSLSJ); a description of the NYLS Street Law experience during emergency remote teaching in spring and summer 2020; a discussion of best practices developed through remote teaching; analysis of the implementation of those best practices in fall 2020; and conclusions and plans for further study.

Walsh, Katie, 'Education: Heads in the Cloud: The Future of Law School Learning' (2020) 68 LSJ: Law Society of NSW Journal 40-43
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed huge challenges for the university sector, with many law schools struggling to stay afloat as international student numbers drop off a cliff. Students were left learning from their bedrooms, dining rooms and verandahs, and attending lectures via the cloud, with all its stilted communication issues. Will law degrees be taught this way for good?

Wapples, Emily, 'Promoting Positive Mental Health in International Postgraduate Law Students at a Time of Global Uncertainty: A Case Study from QLegal at Queen Mary, University of London' (2020) 27(4) International Journal of Clinical Legal Education 107-134
Abstract: Law student mental health and wellbeing was already a growing concern in the UK prior to COVID-19, but when the pandemic occurred, widespread uncertainty placed an unprecedented level of mental health burden on students. Law students were faced with dashed hopes, uncertain futures and the fear of negative academic consequences. This burden was exacerbated in respect of postgraduate international students in London, who were often also forced to decide whether to return home to their families, or to continue their studies abroad, albeit online.This paper uses a case study approach to discuss how one provider of postgraduate clinical legal education (CLE), approached the promotion of positive student mental health both before, and in response to, the pandemic. qLegal at Queen Mary, University of London provides CLE to postgraduates studying for a one year law masters, and in 2019-2020, qLegal delivered CLE to 134 students from 27 countries. The impact that the pandemic had on the mental health of international postgraduate law students was therefore witnessed first-hand.This paper discusses the challenges faced, and concerns raised by international postgraduate law students at qLegal as a result of the pandemic. It examines the steps taken by qLegal to maximise student engagement and promote positive student mental health when rapidly switching to a model of online delivery. The paper concludes by outlining the steps qLegal will take to monitor and address the impact that online delivery in this period of global uncertainty has on the mental health of the next cohort of postgraduate CLE students.

Welgemoed, Marc, 'Clinical Legal Education during a Global Pandemic - Suggestions from the Trenches: The Perspective of the Nelson Mandela University' (2020) 23 Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 1-31
Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has plunged the world into turmoil and uncertainty. The academic world is no exception. In South Africa, due to a nationwide lockdown imposed by government, universities had to suspend all academic activities, but very quickly explored online teaching and learning options in order to ensure continued education to students. As far as Clinical Legal Education, or CLE, is concerned, such online options of teaching and learning could present problems to university law faculties, university law clinics and law students in general, as CLE is a practical methodology, usually following a live-client or simulation model, depending on the particular university and law clinic. This article provides insight into the online methodology followed by the Nelson Mandela University, or NMU. The NMU presents CLE as part of its Legal Practice-module and conventionally follows the live-client model. As the national lockdown in South Africa required inter alia social distancing, the live-client model had been temporarily suspended by the NMU Law Faculty Management Committee and replaced with an online methodology. The aim of this was an attempt to complete the first semester of the academic year in 2020. This online methodology is structured so as to provide practical-orientated training to students relating to a wide variety of topics, including drafting of legal documents, divorce matters, medico-legal practice, labour legal practice, criminal legal practice, as well as professional ethics. The online training took place in two staggered teaching and learning pathways in line with the strategy of the NMU, underpinned by the principle of 'no student will be left behind.' In this way, provision had been made for students with online connectivity and access to electronic devices, students with online connectivity only after return to campus or another venue where connectivity is possible and electronic devices are available, as well as for students who do not have access to online connectivity and electronic devices at all. The reworked CLE-programme of the NMU, planned for the second semester of the 2020-academic year, will also be discussed in this article. The online methodology, followed by the NMU, should however not be viewed as definitive or cast in stone in any way. There might be - and there surely are - alternative methodologies, both online and otherwise, that may provide equally good or even better training to CLE-students during a global pandemic. Alternative suggestions in this regard will also be discussed in this article. It is hoped that this article will provide inspiration, as well as assistance, to university law faculties and law clinics that are struggling to engage with continued practical legal education during the testing and uncertain times brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic. It is further hoped that this article may provide guidance in other difficult and unforeseen future instances that may await CLE. In this regard, it is important to remember that the Fourth Industrial Revolution is rapidly increasing its grip on the world and that CLE will have to adapt to the demands thereof.

Zentner, Aeron, 'Assessing the Impact of the CARES Act on Online Students: A Case Study of Two-Year Public College' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3591519, 2 May 2020)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has made a major impact on higher education and affected students' livelihoods and attainment of education. To help students during these challenging times the Federal CARES Act was established to provide financial relief and support students in their time of need, However, not all students are eligible to participate and these limitations have impacted funding to specific institutions. The following research study examined the implications of the CARES Act for higher education by assessing the current factors associated with the national funding model. Additionally, three additional models were created to estimate the FTE impact and approximated the financial implications of the Act in relation to the unserved or excluded populations. A survey was conducted to understand current student essential needs and the implications of COVID-19 on their livelihoods. The survey was reverse engineered to understand enrollment patterns to determine the proportionality of needs based on the enrollment patterns. Note: this article is not about law schools, but tertiary education more generally.
Note: this article is not about law schools, but tertiary education more generally.

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