Criminal Law / Criminal Justice

This section includes literature on:
  • domestic / family / intimate partner violence
  • law enforcement / policing
  • prisons / penology / incarceration
Literature on criminal court proceedings, including jury trials, are in the Courts / Dispute Resolution section.

Abraham, Leola A, Timothy C Brown and Shaun A Thomas, 'How COVID-19's Disruption of the U.S. Correctional System Provides an Opportunity for Decarceration' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 780-792
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified decades of vulnerabilities, disparities, and injustices within the U.S. correctional system. The spread of the coronavirus poses a particularly serious threat to those that comprise the system, including personnel, attorneys, prisoners, their families and extends into the communities in which facilities are located. These correctional facilities and communities were especially underprepared for the sudden onset of a highly contagious virus, which has resulted in an exceedingly high number of infections among those who work and are held in the facilities. Rampant overcrowding in the U.S. correctional system, an aging population, and a population exhibiting high rates of underlying health conditions are highly likely to exacerbate the spread of this highly contagious virus. This potentially dire set of interrelated circumstances necessitates rapid decarceration measures that effectively balance public safety and public health. Unfortunately, there has been unclear guidance as well as changing and even contradictory information coming from the federal government concerning rapid measures to mitigate the spread of infection to justice system personnel and federal prisoners. In this paper we summarize the federal response and how it has impacted those responsible for implementation. Furthermore, we discuss how systemic deleterious conditions of the U.S. correctional system serve as both accelerants to as well as effects of the pandemic. We end highlighting critical issues relating to early release due to COVID-19 that will necessitate future research.

Abrams, David, 'COVID and Crime: An Early Empirical Look' (Institute for Law and Economics, Research Paper No 20-49, University of Pennsylvania, 14 August 2020)
Abstract: We collect data from over 25 large cities in the U.S. and document the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on crime. There is a widespread immediate drop in both criminal incidents and arrests most heavily pronounced among drug crimes, theft, residential burglaries, and most violent crimes. The decline appears to precede most stay-at-home orders, and arrests follow a similar pattern as reports. We find no decline in homicides and shootings, and an increase in non-residential burglary and car theft in most cities, suggesting that criminal activity was displaced to locations with fewer people. Pittsburgh, New York City, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Washington DC and Chicago each saw overall crime drops of over 35%. There was also a drop in police stops and a rise in Black detainee share in Philadelphia, which may reflect the racial composition of essential workers. Evidence on police-initiated reports and geographic variation in crime change suggests that most of the observed changes are not due to reporting changes.

Adeoye, Feranmi, 'COVID-19: Impact on the Administration of Criminal Justice in Nigeria' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3757851, 15 May 2020)
Abstract: While Nigeria refuses to halt the wrestle against the pandemic to prevent an uncontrollable outbreak, almost every facets of human life outside the home has been on a standstill. On the 30th day of March 2020, the Nigerian President announced the lockdown of major cities including Lagos, Ogun and Abuja while many other states are also on lockdown in compliance with various laws and regulations made by the appropriate bodies. On the 13th day of April, the President extended the lock down by two weeks since the number of positive cases have reached 343 persons across the country. There is no gainsaying that the pandemic has meted out its impact on the administration of criminal justice in various nations of the world. This article examines the impact of COVID-19 on the administration of criminal justice in Nigeria.

Akiyama, Matthew, 'Flattening the Curve for Incarcerated Populations: COVID-19 in Jails and Prisons' (2020) 382 New England Journal of Medicine 2075-2077
Extract: Because of policies of mass incarceration over the past four decades, the United States has incarcerated more people than any other country on Earth. As of the end of 2016, there were nearly 2.2 million people in U.S. prisons and jails. People entering jails are among the most vulnerable in our society, and during incarceration, that vulnerability is exacerbated by restricted movement, confined spaces, and limited medical care. People caught up in the U.S. justice system have already been affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and improved preparation is essential to minimizing the impact of this pandemic on incarcerated persons, correctional staff, and surrounding communities. ... As with general epidemic preparedness, the Covid-19 pandemic will teach us valuable lessons for preparedness in correctional settings. It will also invariably highlight the injustice and inequality in the United States that are magnified in the criminal justice system. As U.S. criminal justice reform continues to unfold, emerging communicable diseases and our ability to combat them need to be taken into account. To promote public health, we believe that efforts to decarcerate, which are already under way in some jurisdictions, need to be scaled up; and associated reductions of incarcerated populations should be sustained. The interrelation of correctional-system health and public health is a reality not only in the United States but around the world.

Alagha, Samah, 'The Response of the Saudi Criminal Law in the Wake of the Corona Virus Pandemic (Covid-19)' [2021] International Journal of Doctrine, Judiciary and Legislation (in press, published online 18 April 2021)
Abstract: At the end of 2019, a new dangerous and contagious disease emerged in the city of Wuhan, China. It has spread throughout the world at a very fast pace. The Coronavirus pandemic has profound impacts on the society and the economy. Therefore, countries endeavor to minimize the severe impacts of this crisis. However, since public health and criminal law are inevitably linked, the purpose of this paper is to explore the response of the criminal law toward the pandemic of coronavirus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Especially since the deficiency of the criminal legal system has been proven in countries that witnessed a significant increase in infections with the Coronavirus without any pause, and in countries that witnessed large waves of infections after they had greatly decreased. This study applies the qualitative research represented in the descriptive and analytical method. The study found out that since the Saudi criminal law is derived from Islamic Shariah, it has been flexible and adaptable to the confrontation of coronavirus pandemic by criminalizing and penalizing all acts of deliberate transmission of coronavirus and all violations of the precautionary measures issued by the competent authorities. Finally, the study concludes with some recommendations with regards to making the Saudi criminal law more effective in the fight against coronavirus.

Alazab, Saleem Isaaf, 'Causality in the Crime of Willful Murder by Transmission of Coronavirus in the Jordanian Legislation' (2020) 13(4) Journal of Politics and Law 181-186
Abstract: Article (326) of the Jordanian Penal Code does not differentiate between methods of willful murder. These methods include transmission of Covid-19, where such type of disease is considered contagious under Article (17) of Jordanian Public Health Law No. (47) of 2008. However, medical science has not certainly proven that the transmission of the virus to a victim is a viable method of infection that definitely causes death. This is since this result (death) might happen a long time after transmission of coronavirus to a victim. It is difficult for the legislator to draft clear provisions that take into account the various circumstances of the willful murder and its sophisticated methods. Therefore, the trial judge is required to verify the existence of the causal relationship in each willful murder case based on its relevant circumstances.

Altheimer, Irshad, Janelle Duda-Banwar and Christopher J Schreck, 'The Impact of Covid-19 on Community-Based Violence Interventions' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 810-819
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of Covid-19 on community-based violence interventions, especially hospital-based violence interventions and street outreach organizations. Guided by our work in Rochester, New York, we explore how the emergence of covid-19, and the subsequent social restrictions, have hampered the ability of community-based organizations to respond to violence. We also examine ways that community-based organizations can adapt to the challenges associated with Covid-19 and continue providing services to the community.

Amon, Joseph J, 'COVID-19 and Detention: Respecting Human Rights' (2020) 22(1) Health and Human Rights Journal 367-370
Extract from Introduction: This summary presents a picture of extraordinary numbers already affected and at risk and unprecedented response. However, one area where there has been too limited of a response to date is action to prevent transmission in detention centers, including jails, prisons, and immigration detention facilities.

Arenas-Arroyo, Esther, Daniel Fernandez-Kranz and Natalia Nollenberger, 'Can't Leave You Now! Intimate Partner Violence Under Forced Coexistence and Economic Uncertainty' (IZA Discussion Paper No 13570, 10 August 2020)
Abstract: With the COVID-19 outbreak imposing stay at home and social distancing policies, warnings about the impact of lockdown and its economic consequences on domestic violence has surged. This paper disentangles the effect of forced coexistence and economic stress on intimate partner violence. Using an online survey data set, we find a 23% increase of intimate partner violence during the lockdown. Our results indicate that the impact of economic consequences is twice as large as the impact of lockdown. We also find a large increase of domestic violence when the relative position of the man worsens, especially in contexts where that position was already being threatened. We view our results as consistent with the male backlash and emotional cue effects.

Ashby, Matthew PJ, 'Changes in Police Calls for Service During the Early Months of the 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic' Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice (advance article, published 25 June 2020)
Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic poses multiple challenges for policing, including the need to continue responding to calls from the public. Several contingency plans warned police to expect a large and potentially overwhelming increase in demand from the public during a pandemic, but (to the author's knowledge) there is no empirical work on police demand during a major public health emergency. This study used calls-for-service data from 10 large cities in the USA to analyse how calls for service changed during the early months of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak, compared to forecasts of call volume based on data from previous years. Contrary to previous warnings, overall the number of calls went down during the early weeks of the pandemic. There were substantial reductions in specific call types, such as traffic collisions, and significant increases in others, such as calls to dead bodies. Other types of calls, particularly those relating to crime and order maintenance, continued largely as before. Changes in the frequency of different call types present challenges to law enforcement agencies, particularly since many will themselves be suffering from reduced staffing due to the pandemic. Understanding changes to calls in detail will allow police leaders to put in place evidence-based plans to ensure they can continue to serve the public.

Ashby, Matthew PJ, 'Initial Evidence on the Relationship between the Coronavirus Pandemic and Crime in the United States' (2020) 9 Crime Science Article 6
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to substantial changes in the daily activities of millions of Americans, with many businesses and schools closed, public events cancelled and states introducing stay-at-home orders. This article used police-recorded open crime data to understand how the frequency of common types of crime changed in 16 large cities across the United States in the early months of 2020. Seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models of crime in previous years were used to forecast the expected frequency of crime in 2020 in the absence of the pandemic. The forecasts from these models were then compared to the actual frequency of crime during the early months of the pandemic. There were no significant changes in the frequency of serious assaults in public or (contrary to the concerns of policy makers) any change to the frequency of serious assaults in residences. In some cities, there were reductions in residential burglary but little change in non-residential burglary. Thefts of motor vehicles decreased in some cities while there were diverging patterns of thefts from motor vehicles. These results are used to make suggestions for future research into the relationships between the coronavirus pandemic and different crimes.

Aslim, Erkmen Giray and Murat C Mungan, 'Access to Substance Use Disorder Treatment During COVID-19: Implications from Reduced Local Jail Populations' (George Mason Law & Economics Research Paper No 20-27, 23 September 2020)
Abstract: Many states have responded to the spread of COVID-19 by implementing policies which have led to a dramatic reduction in jail populations. We consider benefits associated with providing the population of individuals who would, but for these policies, be incarcerated with substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We discuss problems that may prevent this population from receiving SUD treatment as well as policies which may mitigate these problems.

Bagaric, Mirko, Dan Hunter and Jennifer Svilar, 'Prison Abolition: From Naive Idealism to Technological Pragmatism' (2020) 111(2) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (forthcoming)
Abstract: The United States is finally recoiling from the mass incarceration crisis that has plagued it for half a century. The world's largest incarcerator has seen a small drop in prison numbers since 2008. However, the rate of decline is so slow that it would take half a century for incarceration numbers to reduce to historical levels. Further, the drop in prison numbers has occurred against the backdrop of piecemeal reforms, and there is no meaningful, systematic mechanism to reduce incarceration levels. Despite this, there is now, for the first time, a growing public acceptance that prison is a problematic, possibly flawed, sanction. Prison is expensive, inflicts serious unintended suffering on offenders, and profoundly damages families. Alternatives to prison are finally being canvassed. In one respect this is not surprising. The manner in which we deal with serious offenders has not meaningfully changed for over 500 years--during all this time, we have simply locked offenders behind high walls. The way we deal with serious criminals has been more resistant to scientific and technological advances than any other aspect of society. The most radical suggestion regarding prison reform is to abolish prisons. Abolition of prisons has been a theme in some limited academic quarters for many decades. It has never received anything approaching mainstream credibility as a reform option. This is now changing. Prominent politicians, social groups, university organisations, and the mainstream media commentaries have recently advocated prison abolition. This proposal is no longer a fringe idea. It has gained considerable more currency in light of the dual society-changing phenomenon of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Black Lives Matters movement. Yet, the persuasiveness of the proposal to abolish prison evaporates hastily when any degree of intellectual rigor is cast over the proposal. It is likely to go down as naive idealism due to the absence of any practical alternatives to prison. This Article shores up the notion of prison abolition by carefully outlining an alternative to prison and hence addresses what is thought to be an insurmountable flaw in abolitionist proposal. We advance a viable alternative to prison that involves the use and adaption of existing monitoring and censoring technology, which will enable us to monitor and observe the actions of offenders in real-time and, when necessary, to halt potentially harmful acts of offenders before they harm other people. In proposing this new sanction, we give pragmatic weight to the prison abolition proposal and provide lawmakers and the community a pathway to abolishing most prisons. The reforms suggested in this Article can result in prison numbers being reduced by over ninety percent, without any diminution in public safety.

Baharuddin, Ahmad Syukran et al, 'Offense of Spreading Infectious Disease and Methods of Proof Through Forensic Science' (2020) 3(1) INSLA E-Proceedings 340-350
Abstract: Since 1988, a specific Act has been enacted concerning the prevention and control of infectious diseases. This Act is known as the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases Act 1988. The preamble to this Act states that it was enacted to amend and consolidate laws relating to the prevention and control of infectious diseases and to provide for other matters relating thereto. In this Act, there are several types of actions that if committed can be convicted as an offense under this Act, among them include acting in a manner that can spread infectious diseases. This study discusses matters related to offense causing the spread of infectious diseases from the view of civil and Syariah law. It also covers scientific methods to prove such offense. This qualitative study has collected relevant data through primary and secondary documents and subsequently analysed it using the document analysis method. The result of this study found that the act of exposing others to the risk of infection is an offense and it is forbidden in Islam. Several scientific methods can be used in convicting this offense; among them are medical reports, travel records, physical examinations, CCTV footage, and biological examinations. This study suggests that the aspect of proof for such cases should be emphasized because such studies have not yet been conducted by previous researchers

Balmori de la Miyar, Jose Roberto, Lauren Hoehn-Velasco and Adan Silverio-Murillo, 'Druglords Don't Stay at Home: COVID-19 Pandemic and Crime Patterns in Mexico City' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3667160, Social Science Research Network, 15 July 2020)
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on conventional crime and organized crime in Mexico City, Mexico.Methods: Mexico City's Attorney General's Office reported crime data, covering domestic violence, burglary, robbery, vehicle-theft, assault-battery, homicides, kidnapping, and extortion. We use an event study for the intertemproal variation across the 16 districts (municipalities) in Mexico City for 2019 and 2020.Results: We find a sharp decrease on crimes related to domestic violence, burglary, and vehicle theft; a decrease during some weeks on crimes related to assaultbattery and extortion, and no effects on crimes related to robbery, kidnapping, and homicides.Conclusions: While our results show a decline in conventional crime during the COVID-19 pandemic, organized crime remains steady. These findings have policy implications for catastrophic events around the world, as well as possible national security issues in Mexico.

Barnert, Elizabeth, Cyrus Ahalt and Brie Williams, 'Prisons: Amplifiers of the COVID-19 Pandemic Hiding in Plain Sight' (2020) 110(7) American Journal of Public Health 964-966
Abstract: Introduction: On February 29, 2020, nearly half of incident cases (233 of 565) of COVID-19 reported in Wuhan, China, were from the city's prison system. A separate prison outbreak, 450 miles away, in Shendong, China, was traced to officials who had visited Wuhan and infected seven prison guards and 200 inmates. Modern prisons have faced infectious outbreaks but none at the scale of COVID-19's. On March 26, 2020, the United States reported its first death of an incarcerated patient, in Georgia, and New York City jails reported an infection rate seven times higher than in the rest of the city, a current US epicenter of COVID-19. For many Americans, it is easy to forget the experiences of our detained community members. But custodial facilities are vulnerable to devastating COVID-19 outbreaks that pose disproportionately high health risks to detained and incarcerated people, elevate transmission risk in surrounding communities, and would likely trigger an occupational health crisis for hundreds of thousands of professionals performing essential work in custodial facilities around the nation. In view of the considerable yet poorly understood and little discussed health risks, public health and custodial leadership must take urgent measures to keep COVID-19 out of custodial settings and develop stringent mitigation strategies for when it does.

Baron, E Jason, Ezra G Goldstein and Cullen T Wallace, 'Suffering in Silence: How COVID-19 School Closures Inhibit the Reporting of Child Maltreatment' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3601399, 14 May 2020)
Abstract: To combat the spread of COVID-19, many primary and secondary schools in the United States canceled classes and moved instruction online. This study examines an unexplored consequence of COVID-19 school closures: the broken link between child maltreatment victims and the number one source of reported maltreatment allegations - school personnel. Using current, county-level data from Florida, we estimate a counterfactual distribution of child maltreatment allegations for March and April 2020, the first two months in which Florida schools closed. While one would expect the financial, mental, and physical stress due to COVID-19 to result in additional child maltreatment cases, we find that the actual number of reported allegations was approximately 15,000 lower (27 percent) than expected for these two months. We leverage a detailed dataset of school district staffing and spending to show that the observed decline in allegations was primarily driven by school closures. Finally, we discuss policy implications of our findings and suggest a number of responses that may mitigate this hidden cost of school closures.

Beard, Jacqueline, 'Coronavirus: Prisons (England and Wales)' (House of Commons Library, Briefing Paper No 8892, 18 May 2020)
Abstract: On 27 April 2020 the Justice Secretary said that the numbers of coronavirus cases and deaths in prisons were lower than had been originally predicted and that prisons were coping and dealing well w...

Berryessa, Colleen, 'Compassionate Release as a "Right" in the Age of COVID-19' (2020) 20(7) American Journal of Bioethics 185-187 (forthcoming)
Abstract: This comment discusses the immense need for compassionate release of vulnerable and elderly inmates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compassionate release will save lives, and asserts the basic rights and protections of the most vulnerable. Many elderly and sick inmates, unless action is taken, will die of COVID-19 while waiting on their compassionate release decisions during the pandemic, and many more will die if their applications are stalled or denied for political reasons. Counsel for vulnerable defendants seeking compassionate release based on health or age, as 'extraordinary and compelling reasons' for early release, should examine successful applications, although few and far in between, in order to increase the likelihood of securing compassionate release for their clients.

'Beware of Coronavirus Scams' (2020) 113(5) Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine 25-25
Abstract: SABRIC, the South African Banking Risk Information Centre, warns bank clients that cybercriminals are exploiting the spread of COVID-19 for their own gain using the 'Coronamania' panic to spread coronavirus scams. Coronavirus scams exploit peoples concerns for their health and safety and pressure them into being tricked using social engineering. Social engineering is manipulative and exploits human vulnerability because criminals know that the weakest link in the information security chain is the human being.

Bhoi, Pritish Kumar et al, 'Covid-19 Pandemic: Cybercrimes vs Cybersecurity' (2021) 10(2) International Journal of Modern Agriculture 145-152
Abstract: The whole world as we know is experiencing the worst ever pandemic in the history of mankind. The novel Corona Virus i: e COVID-19 has shaken the world economy to its knee. With the rapid spread of the virus, lots of tech giant companies are busy workings with the Govt. to handle the situation. As most people are accessing confidential data through home routers, hackers are easily finding the loopholes to get to the systems and do mischief things. The paper tries to investigate the current scenario of COVID 19 and how it has become the catalyst for the cyberwar between hackers and cybersecurity specialists. This paper will go through various ongoing use instances of cybercrime examining differences from the previous pandemics. It also aims at realizing the relevance for cyber security in the current context along with basic guidelines against cyber threats.

Biswas, Debajyoti and Parvin Sultana, 'Policing During the Time of Corona: The Indian Context' [2020] Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice (advance article, published 31 May 2020)
Abstract: According to Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, India has the most stringent lockdown as compared to other nations and has scored 100% in the scale; nevertheless, there had been sporadic incidence of attacks on police personnel and medical workers in different parts of India. This article argues that such resistance comes from two broad factors: (i) a collective scepticism that has built up among certain section of people and (ii) a tool of defiance against the government. In order to quell such resistance, community leaders and the police can play a very crucial role. In order to establish the above hypotheses, a quantitative approach of the events that have occurred in India during the lockdown period of 21 days shall be considered.

Boman, John H and Owen Gallupe, 'Has COVID-19 Changed Crime? Crime Rates in the United States during the Pandemic' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 537-545
Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, state-level governments across the United States issued mandatory stay-at-home orders around the end of March 2020. Though intended to stop the spread of the COVID-19 virus, the lockdowns have had sweeping impacts on life in ways which were not originally planned. This study's purpose is to investigate the extent to which governmental responses to COVID-19 have impacted crime rates in the U.S. Compared to the pre-pandemic year of 2019, crime - as measured by calls for service to law enforcement - has decreased markedly. However, there are multiple indications that the crime drop is being driven by decreases in minor offenses which are typically committed in peer groups. At the same time, serious crimes which are generally not committed with co-offenders (namely homicide and intimate partner violence) have either remained constant or increased. As such, the crime drop appears to be hiding a very disturbing trend where homicides remain unchanged and intimate partner batteries are increasing. Since many offenders would presumably be committing less serious crimes in a non-pandemic world, we raise attention to the possibility that mandatory lockdown orders may have taken minor offenders and placed them into situations where there is rampant opportunity for intimate partner violence, serious batteries, and homicides. While crime in the U.S. appears to be down overall, this good news should not blind us to a troubling co-occurring reality - a reality that paints a dim picture of unintended consequences to public health and criminal justice finances as a result of COVID-19 lockdowns.

Bonvicini, Barbara et al, 'Legal Scenarios in the Coronavirus Time: Medico Legal Implications in the Aspects of Governance' (2021) 48 Legal Medicine Article 101832
Abstract: Along with rising levels of the infection around the world, the state of emergency prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic has also been having a heavy legal impact. The situation is posing important criminal challenges, as well as an ocean of social and public health issues around the world. It has not only directly affected constitutionally-guaranteed rights and individual freedoms, but also brought to the fore certain types of criminal offence that had previously been of little practical importance, such as the crime of 'maliciously or unintentionally causing an epidemic'. Different countries and states have introduced policies to manage the emergency at different times and in different ways. The measures adopted have been the object of much criticism, also raising questions of constitutional legitimacy in countries like Italy. The present contribution begins with a brief outline of the different international scenarios. Then we examine some of the medicolegal aspects of criminal offences previously envisaged and newly introduced since the arrival of the pandemic. We suggest the need for a sort of 'code of public health laws for the time of coronavirus', that could also be applied to other public health emergencies, pandemic or otherwise. The idea is to give operators in the sector and the general population the opportunity to identify clear and simple rules to follow in the current complex global situation. We need a new, appropriate interpretation of the 'boundaries' of our individual rights in relation to the need to safeguard the wider community and its more vulnerable members.

Brandao, Claudio and Renato Feitosa, 'Prison by Human Rights' Lens and Covid19 Pandemic: The Brazilian Crisis' (2020) 2(2) Humanities and Rights Global Network Journal 147-163
Abstract: From the eighteenth century, prison was raised as the main response of Criminal law. This happened for a political reason, namely the creation of State. In this context, incorporations that the ideologies and characteristics of later centuries brought to prison entail an aporia. To face this crisis, Human rights has produced criteria that should guide the actions of States. The COVID19 pandemic caused urgency of segment of these criteria and the Brazilian case is brought up as an example of failures of most UN member states.

Bresler, Jessica and Leo Beletsky, 'COVID-19, Incarceration, and the Criminal Legal System' in Scott Burris et al (eds), Assessing Legal Responses to COVID-19 (Public Health Law Watch, 2020) 228-233
Abstract: Even before the pandemic, contact with the criminal legal system resulted in health harms on both individual and community levels, with disproportionate impact on people of color. The COVID-19 crisis magnified the deleterious public health impact of policing, prisons, community supervision, and other elements of the United States' vast system of control and punishment. Despite the scientific consensus that prisons and jails needed to be rapidly depopulated to avert disaster, the number of people released has remained small, resulting in explosive outbreaks of COVID-19 behind bars. Depopulation of correctional settings is also rarely paired with meaningful efforts to connect reentering individuals to vital supports. Community supervision systems failed to relax onerous probation/parole requirements, while police have taken on enforcement of physical distancing and other public health orders. Even as COVID-19 is raging, the criminal legal system is resisting changes necessary to facilitate pandemic response. With a focus on incarceration, this Chapter provides an overview of how the U.S. criminal legal system has shaped its COVID-19 response, situating prescriptions in the current debate about divestment from structures of social control in favor of a renewed focus on the social contract. This Chapter will discuss (1) how criminal legal system has exacerbated the current public health emergency and (2) how the United States can use this moment to reform this system and its legal underpinning.

Bruce, Raphael, Alexsandros Cavgias and Luis Meloni, 'Filling the Void? Organized Crime and COVID-19 in Rio De Janeiro' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3678840, Social Science Research Network, 21 August 2020)
Abstract: How does the presence of organized crime affects the intensity of the COVID-19 epidemic? Rio de Janeiro is the perfect laboratory to answer such an overlooked question because two distinct types of criminal organizations operate in its territory. First, there are drug trafficking gangs comprised of slum dwellers. Second, there are the milicias, paramilitary groups with links to the police, usually financed by extortion. We estimate two-way fixed effects models comparing the number of cases (deaths) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARI) before and after the COVID-19 outbreak in neighborhoods with and without the presence of organized crime. We document two findings. First, the number of SARI deaths in neighborhoods controlled by gangs increased 43% less than in areas without any form of organized crime. In neighborhoods controlled by milicias, however, this outcome increased 29% more than areas without any form of organized crime. We find similar effects for SARI hospitalizations. These results are robust to various specifications. Overall, our results show that the reaction of organized crime to a public health crisis depends on its form of criminal governance.

Buchanan, Molly et al, 'It's F**ing Chaos: COVID-19's Impact on Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 578-600
Abstract: An early examination of the impact of COVID-19 on juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice in America, this review provides initial scholarship to rapidly evolving areas of research. Our appraisals of these topics are made after nearly 2 months of national COVID-19 mitigation measures, like social distancing and limited "non-essential" movement outside the home but also as states are gradually lifting stricter directives and reopening economic sectors. We consider the impact of these pandemic-related changes on twenty-first century youths, their behaviors, and their separate justice system. To forecast the immediate future, we draw from decades of research on juvenile delinquency and the justice system, as well as from reported patterns of reactions and responses to an unprecedented and ongoing situation. As post-pandemic studies on juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice proliferate, we urge careful consideration as to how they might influence societal and the system responses to youths' delinquency. Additional practical implications are discussed.

Caputo, Fiorella et al, 'Covid-19 Emergency in Prison: Current Management and Forensic Perspectives' (2020) 88(4) Medico-Legal Journal 185-186
Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic is currently a major worldwide public health problem. Contagion within prisons and in other custodial settings will need to be addressed promptly, but the management of preventive measures will be difficult due to overcrowding and inmates and officers' close physical contact. There may also be less access to care than in community settings. Accordingly, prisons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks of infection, and in addition to the likely greater risks of contagion attention must be paid to the psychological problems that the pandemic can have on the prison population. Riots and episodes of violence have already taken place in various prisons. With the inevitable restrictions on social contact and family meetings, prisoners who already are at increased risk of mental illness and suicide are more susceptible to adverse psychological repercussions. From a forensic point of view, therefore, we stress the need for the development of a strong support network by mental health workers for the prison population.

Carrington, Kerry et al, 'Impact of COVID on Domestic and Family Violence Workforce and Clients: Submission to the Australian Parliament Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs Inquiry into and Report on Family, Domestic and Sexual Violence' (QUT Centre for Justice, 30 July 2020)
Abstract: A research team from the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Centre for Justice has prepared this interim select report drawn from our nation-wide survey on the impact of COVID-19 on the domestic and family violence (DFV) workforce and clients for submission to the Standing Committee on Social Policy and Legal Affairs inquiry into and report on family, domestic and sexual violenceThe interim (July 24, 2020) findings of a nation-wide survey on the impact of COVID-19 on the domestic and family violence (DFV) sector and their clients based on 288 responses confirm concerns raised early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Australian healthcare and women's safety professionals predicted an 'impending increase' in cases (Hegarty & Tarzia, 2020; Forster, 2020). Advocates have also reported increased complexities and challenges in assisting victims/survivors amidst COVID-19 (Forster, 2020). A huge proportion, 88% of respondents to our survey so far, have reported an increase in the complexity of their client needs. They also reported increases in controlling behaviours, such as isolation, increased sense of vulnerability, forced to co-habitat during lock-down, and inability to seek outside help, increased fear of monitoring by abuser, and increased use of technology to intimidate. Perhaps one of the most concerning of our findings is the number of DFV workers reporting new clients seeking their help for the first time during the COVID-19 crisis. This is evidence that the pandemic conditions are affecting the rate of domestic violence consistent with international research. We asked the DFV workforce what extra resources they needed to better cope with a crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic in the future. They need more of everything, but front-line workers emphasised the need for: * better technology and technology support for workers, technology checks for clients, more safe mobile phones for clients and better internet connectivity; * more government funding for crisis supplies and emergency and long-term accommodation; * transport for home delivery of services; * the continuation of tele-health provisions; * more resources for male perpetrator programs (especially for Indigenous men). They also need systems to be flexible, especially courts and magistrates and they called for improved policing and better communication and translation services and supports for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) communities.

Carroll, Jenny E, 'Pretrial Detention in the Time of COVID-19' (2020) 115 Northwestern University Law Review Online 59-87
Abstract: It is hard to overstate the impact of COVID-19. When it comes to the criminal justice system, the current COVID-19 crisis has shone a light on pre-existing flaws. Long before the first confirmed case in Seattle or elsewhere, America's jails and prisons were particularly susceptible to contagions, exacerbated by problems from overcrowding to over policing to lack of reentry programs. This Essay focuses on one aspect of the challenges the criminal justice system faces in light of COVID-19 and beyond--that of a pretrial detention system that falls more harshly on poor and minority defendants, has swollen local jail populations, and has incentivized pleas contributing in its own right to prison overcrowding. Even in the best of times the pretrial detention system is often punitive, fraught with bias, produces unnecessarily high rates of detention, and carries a myriad of downstream consequences both for the accused and the community at large. In the context of the COVID-19 crisis, this pretrial detention system faces an exacerbated challenge: the health and safety of those in custody and those who staff U.S. jails and prisons. This new reality reveals that even during 'ordinary times' the pretrial detention system fundamentally miscalculates public safety interests to the detriment of both detainees and the communities they leave behind. Simply put, current pretrial detention models fail to account for risks to defendants during periods of incarceration and pit defendants' interests against the very communities that depend on them. The public health crisis of COVID-19 demonstrates in very real terms the interconnected nature of a defendant's and the community's safety interests. This connection is not unique to the current public health crisis, however, COVID-19 brings to light the persistent reality that communities are often weakened, not made safer, by the removal of defendants during pretrial periods.

Cioffi, Andrea, 'COVID-19 and the Release of Mafia Bosses: The Importance of Medico-Legal Evaluations' (2020) 60(3) Medicine, Science and the Law 239-240
Abstract: Reproduces a letter discussing Italy's rule that, during the coronavirus pandemic, prisoners with less than 18 months of their sentence remaining should serve it at home under house arrest. Notes the release of leading Mafia figures and suggests the need for medico-legal evaluations before release.

'Conditions of Confinement, COVID-19, and the CDC' 134(6) Harvard Law Review 2233-2256
Extract from Introduction: Section A surveys recent cases in the Eighth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment conditions of confinement sphere to show that courts are giving excessive deference to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance and sometimes ceding the constitutional inquiry to the CDC altogether. Section B then argues that this level of deference is inappropriate given established principles of administrative and constitutional law. The CDC's guidance represents the most informal of agency actions -- it was promulgated with little process and involves details of prison administration outside the CDC's expertise. Administrative law instructs courts to provide this sort of agency action little to no deference. Here, courts have done the opposite. Further, by inserting the CDC into constitutional cases, courts are abdicating a duty that is fundamentally theirs: to answer questions about what our society is willing to accept in the name of punishment. In fact, courts are deferring to CDC guidance which itself seems to subjugate the best public health advice to penological interests of incarceration. This results in a double deference of sorts: courts defer to the CDC which in turn defers to prison officials. Both public health and constitutional rights get lost along the way.

'Coronavirus: Impact on Penalties: Portugal' [2020] (8 April) Lawyer (Online Edition) 1
Abstract: The article informs that breach of legal provisions regulating market organization is punishable in Portugal under public health epidemiological crisis. It mentions that crimes aimed at repressing anti-economic and public health offences, the law provides for and punishes as a crime the acquisition of essential goods, such as medicines, masks, or disinfectant product in the situation of coronavirus.

Coster, Maria, 'A Disease Exacerbated' (2020) 163(6) Solicitors Journal 41-43
Abstract: Considers the plight of victims of domestic violence and abuse in the coronavirus pandemic, confined to their homes and more vulnerable than ever to their abusers. Discusses the legal remedies available to protect victims and children, including protection orders, injunctions and financial support.

Coyne, Christopher J and Yuliya Yatsyshina, 'Pandemic Police States' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3598643, Social Science Research Network, 11 May 2020)
Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments' willingness to employ their police powers have been brought to the forefront. Pandemic police states utilize surveillance, dictates limiting association, and punishment in the name of combating the virus. While police powers can be used for good, they can also be abused. We outline the theoretical foundations of the operation of the potentially troubling aspects of pandemic police state activities. We then catalog some pandemic police state activities associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. We conclude with the implications for peace studies.

Cyphert, Amy, 'Reprogramming Recidivism: The First Step Act and Algorithmic Prediction of Risk' (2020) 51(2) Seton Hall Law Review 331-381
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: The First Step Act, a seemingly miraculous bipartisan criminal justice reform bill, was signed into law in late 2018. The Act directed the Attorney General to develop a risk and needs assessment tool that would effectively determine who would be eligible for early release based on an algorithmic prediction of recidivism. The resulting tool--PATTERN--was released in the summer of 2019 and quickly updated in January of 2020. It was immediately put to use in an unexpected manner, helping to determine who was eligible for early release during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is now the latest in a growing list of algorithmic recidivism prediction tools, tools that first came to mainstream notice with critical reporting about the COMPAS sentencing algorithm. This Article evaluates PATTERN, both in its development as well as its still-evolving implementation. In some ways, the PATTERN algorithm represents tentative steps in the right direction on issues like transparency, public input, and use of dynamic factors. But PATTERN, like many algorithmic decision-making tools, will have a disproportionate impact on Black inmates; it provides fewer opportunities for inmates to reduce their risk score than it claims and is still shrouded in some secrecy due to the government's decision to dismiss repeated calls to release more information about it. Perhaps most perplexing, it is unclear whether the tool actually advances accuracy with its predictions. This Article concludes that PATTERN is a decent first step, but it still has a long way to go before it is truly reformative.

Davis, Benjamin, 'COVID-19 Human Endangerment As A Domestic Crime or an International Crime Against Humanity' (University of Toledo Legal Studies Research Paper, 19 May 2020)
Abstract: To analyze human endangerment in the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States as a crime, this paper starts with a review of domestic law in a comparative manner. The experience in France with regard to high government officials being charged with domestic crimes for the contaminated blood scandal during the AIDS epidemic is presented and analyzed noting the key legal rules expressed by the French courts in that context. This paper goes on in a comparative approach in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic to examine such criminal liability in the US system with a discussion of the murky and complex issues of qualified immunity. It further highlights the efforts to have legislation passed to provide robust immunity for civil claims. And it posits that these immunities for civil claims likely reduce any likelihood of criminal process for acts and omissions of both public and private actors, except in the most egregious cases.Finding a likely impasse through these mechanisms, the article turns to international law and in particular customary international criminal law to see if it can provide a method of analyzing the human endangerment. Drawing from the Statute of the International Criminal Court as a possible crystallization of certain types of crimes against humanity, I identify particular groups against which such crimes might be seen as being in the process of being perpetrated.But, even if the particular crimes against humanity in the Statute of the International Criminal Court are seen as progressive development rather than crystallization, the article suggests that they are useful tools in helping to have an organize principle as to how to address the monstrous US response to the COVID-19 pandemic.The article ends with examples of how this method can help those concerned with human life to examine in a clear eyed manner the hundreds or thousands of intentional acts being done by public and private actors that endanger human life. And it also points a way as to how to think about the myriad acts being done by persons to protect human life.In the end, the monstrous response is seen as placing populations and particularly vulnerable populations before Hobbesian choices between protecting their health and venturing out into society in a time of uncertain information, uncertain resources, and pressure to reopen and pressure to reopen or lose unemployment or other benefits.

Delfino, Rebecca, 'A New Prescription for the Opioid Epidemic: 360-Degree Accountability for Pharmaceutical Companies and Their Executives' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No 3797972, 4 March 2021)
Abstract: We can no longer ignore this--A national crisis resulting in more than half-a-million American deaths, costing hundreds of millions of dollars in losses to the economy, ravaging the health care system, and devastating state and local communities. This narrative describes the COVID-19 pandemic and something else: the epidemic of opioid addiction and abuse. In the last twenty years, the opioid epidemic claimed the lives of more than 700,000 people at the cost of more than 500 billion dollars to the economy. The COVID-19 pandemic has made the opioid epidemic worse, causing a staggering increase in opioid-related overdose deaths. Even now, on average, 140 people die every day from an opioid overdose, making it a leading cause of injury-related death in the United States. And 70 percent of those deaths involve a prescription opioid. There is a growing sense that those responsible for the opioid epidemic, specifically drug companies and their executives, have escaped responsibility for their dangerous and deceptive practices in manufacturing and marketing opioids. Although they have confronted civil lawsuits, the pharmaceutical industry has faced virtually no criminal scrutiny; only a couple of companies and executives have ever been criminally charged for the devastation that opioids have caused. This raises questions: Given the increasing number of opioid overdose deaths nationally, why are charges and convictions of drug companies and their executives so rare? And why haven't existing legal mechanisms worked to punish the improper manufacturing and marketing practices and curb the epidemic? Their misconduct continues because no single federal law exists to prosecute pharmaceutical companies and their executives for causing the epidemic. And the laws that govern the industry are ineffective; they fail to criminalize the type of conduct that caused the epidemic, contain elements that are prohibitively difficult to prove, or impose minimal penalties that fail to deter bad actors. Thus, the drug industry has persisted in dubious practices unfettered by civil litigation, government enforcement actions, and fines. This article seeks to examine these issues and others. It is the first in legal scholarship to offer a concrete and omnibus solution grounded in federal law to address the pharmaceutical industry's misconduct. The article also continues the conversation I began in my article, The Prescription Abuse Prevention Act: A New Federal Statute to Criminalize Overprescribing Opioids, 39 YALE L. & POL'Y REV. (forthcoming, 2021) which offered a proposal for federal criminalization of doctors who overprescribe opioids. The novel 360-degree solution proposed here--the 'Controlled Substance Manufacturing and Marketing Accountability Act'--will deter and punish those pharmaceutical companies and their executives who provided misleading information to government regulators and used deceptive practices in marketing opioids to the public. It also recognizes that when properly prescribed, these drugs provide essential relief for pain and suffering. Thus, this proposal seeks to address prior misconduct and point the way forward to avoid the next drug epidemic.

Dolovich, Sharon, 'Mass Incarceration, Meet COVID-19' (UCLA School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No 21-02, 15 January 2021)
Abstract: With the global pandemic still unfolding, we are only beginning to make sense of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the people who live and work inside American prisons and jails, and of what effect, if any, the pandemic will have on the nation's continued commitment to mass incarceration under unduly harsh conditions. In this Essay, I take stock of where things now stand. I also consider how we got to this point, and how penal policy would need to change if we are to prevent another round of needless suffering and death when the next pandemic hits. Part I explains why the incarcerated face an elevated risk of infection and potentially fatal complications from COVID-19. Part II describes the measures various corrections administrators took at the start of the pandemic to try to limit viral spread inside jails and prisons, and why, however well-intentioned, these measures were insufficient to bring the virus under control. Part III addresses the steps taken by public officials at all levels to reduce the number of people in custody and offers initial thoughts as to why, after a concerted push for releases on the part of many public actors in the first months of the pandemic, these efforts had already considerably slowed by the latter part of May 2020. (Here, the focus is primarily, though not exclusively, on the federal courts' nonresponse to urgent petitions from incarcerated plaintiffs.) Part IV draws on the work of the UCLA Law COVID-19 Behind Bars Data Project. It explores what the data shows regarding infection rates and COVID deaths in custody, describes the limits of the available data, and explains why the impact on people in jails and prisons is likely even greater than the official numbers suggest. Part V zeroes in on the culture of secrecy that American corrections administrators have long been empowered to cultivate regarding what goes on behind bars. It argues that this culture has exacerbated the threat COVID poses to the incarcerated as well as to staff, that such secrecy is at odds with the imperatives of a public institution, and that we need to replace the reigning default posture of concealment with an ethos of transparency. This Essay concludes with a call for a broad normative reorientation toward assessing carceral policy through a public health lens.

Draper, Brandon Marc, 'And Justice for None: How COVID-19 Is Crippling the Criminal Jury Right' (2021) 62(9) Boston College Law Review (Electronic Supplement, Article 1)
Abstract: The jury trial is the cornerstone of the criminal justice system in the United States. Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, however, access to fair and constitutional jury trials has largely come to a halt. Courts correctly decided to stop all jury trials and other in-person proceedings as the nation learned more about a new and deadly virus. Nevertheless, this decision denied access to an important constitutional right. In response, some courts employed video conference technology such as Zoom and WebEx to conduct arraignments, general court appearances, and some pretrial hearings. Six months into the pandemic, some criminal courts are beginning to consider and test two adaptations of jury trials to attempt to meet the needs of the system: (1) trials that are both in-person and compliant with social distancing policies and (2) trials conducted exclusively via video conference. This Essay argues that at best, these solutions are grossly unfair to all of those who participate in the criminal justice system. At worst, they likely violate the Sixth Amendment rights of the accused and create ethical concerns for prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges, and jurors. Yet, even with these legitimate concerns, courts should attempt to mitigate the risks and resume jury trials that are both in-person and compliant with social distancing policies to provide the criminal justice system with the best opportunity to ensure fair jury trials.

Eboibi, Felix E, 'Cybercriminals and Coronavirus Cybercrimes in Nigeria, the United States of America and the United Kingdom: Cyber Hygiene and Preventive Enforcement Measures' (2021) 47(1) Commonwealth Law Bulletin 113-142
Abstract: There seems to be no lockdown for cybercriminals who are capitalizing on the global lockdown to perpetrate cyber coronavirus crimes. Qualitatively, this paper examines these crimes, their peculiarities, and how they can be curtailed. Although the United States of America (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) have put in place cyber hygiene and preventive enforcement measures to curtail the activities of cybercriminals in cyberspace, the same cannot be said of Nigeria. Arguably, cybercrime institutions in Nigeria lack adequate capacity building, professional competence, and inter-agency cooperation concerning cyber coronavirus crimes. Consequently, it calls for the adaptation of the US and UK measures to protect cybercitizens.

Farmer, Ashley K and Allen Copenhaver, 'Policing in a Pandemic: How Law Enforcement Communicates with the Public' (2021) Policing: An International Journal (advance article, published 29 April 2021)
Purpose: This study, a content analysis, aims to analyze general communications from law enforcement via agency websites about the COVID-19 pandemic and how this affected police roles. The authors study the extent to which police departments used their websites to inform the public about COVID-19, changes to their policies and additional information they felt necessary to give members of the public. This is important for understanding how the police inform the public during a pandemic and how the pandemic affected their police role.
Design/methodology/approach: The data gathered for this project came from a content analysis of the official websites of the largest municipal police departments in the USA. The researchers collected quantitative data from the official websites of law enforcement agencies who serve the 200 largest cities in the USA in March 2020 and coded the information from the websites to determine what themes were most prevalent.
Findings: The messages most often provided on department websites included information about COVID-19 (52% of websites included this information), modifications to services (33%) and informing users that services such as fingerprinting would be altered (42%). Websites also reminded the public of restrictions on public gatherings (25%) and stay-at-home orders (38%). Further logistic regression analyses explored significant associations among these variables to understand how police/public communications influenced the role of law enforcement during the pandemic. Originality/value: Little is known about how law enforcement communicates online with the public during a global pandemic like COVID-19 or how this might affect the police role. Police departments can use their websites to communicate important information to citizens and keep communities updated. Policy implications suggest that agencies continue to update websites with important information and be direct about expectations from the public regarding compliance while also being transparent about how police roles might change.

Farrow, Kathryn, 'Policing the Pandemic in the UK Using the Principles of Procedural Justice' (2020) 14(3) Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 587-592
Extract: The involvement of the police in ensuring compliance with lockdown measures has raised questions regarding the legitimate boundaries of police power during what is first and foremost a public health emergency. Although it can be argued that enforcing social distancing laws can be seen as part of the police mandate of ensuring social order, it is unusual for officers to enforce measures for what essentially is a public health issue. Concerns have been raised regarding the ability of the police to effectively police social distancing measures, and such issues are only likely to increase as the rules change and adapt with the imminent easing of the lockdown period. The decision for the government to put law enforcement officials in the position of enforcing public health regulations is unprecedented, but is widely in step with the approach taken by many other countries around the world. Although this method of ensuring compliance with public health measures has been questioned, it is still possible for it to be highly effective during the 'emergency period' of the pandemic.

Ferstman, Carla, 'Detention and Pandemic Exceptionality' in Carla Ferstman and Andrew Fagan (eds), Covid-19, Law and Human Rights: Essex Dialogues (School of Law and Human RIghts, University of Essex, 2020) 177-185
Abstract: This essay considers the circumstances of persons deprived of their liberty in the context of Covid-19. Detention is always intended to be exceptional and the essay explores the extent to which the pandemic impacts upon this exceptional character. First, by increasing the unacceptability of detention, have the rules regarding what may constitute 'arbitrary detention' changed? Secondly, for persons serving out prison sentences, to what extent should Covid-19 serve as a justification for early release or commutation of punishment? In this respect, should the goals of retribution and specific and general deterrence be weighed against the rights to health and safety of prisoners and prison staff, and if so, how? Do detaining authorities have absolute discretion to determine which detainees to release or must they ensure that policies of release also, are not arbitrary? To what extent does the arbitrary resort to detention as well as the arbitrary decision to maintain someone in detention during the pandemic, which may heighten certain individuals' exposure to the disease and thereby produce extreme anxiety, give rise to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, if not torture? The paper considers how governments, specialist agencies and courts are beginning to grapple with these legal, ethical and public health issues. On the one hand, recognition of the heightened health risks for detainees associated with the pandemic is proving to be an important opportunity to reduce reliance on detention - and thereby to make good on the intention for detention to be recognised as an exceptional measure. Yet on the other hand, as will be shown, the selectivity of approaches and lack of transparency and oversight of decision-making has put some detainees at even greater risk of harm.

Flanders, Chad et al, '"Terroristic Threats" and COVID-19: A Guide for the Perplexed' (2020) 169(4) University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online 63-89
Abstract: The first few months of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States saw the rise of a troubling sort of behavior: people would cough or spit on people or otherwise threaten to spread the COVID-19 virus, resulting in panic and sometimes thousands of dollars' worth of damages to businesses. Those who have been caught doing this -- or have filmed themselves doing it -- have been charged under so-called 'terroristic threat' statutes. But what is a terroristic threat, and is it an appropriate charge in these cases? Surprisingly little has been written about these statutes given their long history and regular use by states. Our article is one of the first to look systematically at these statutes, and we do so in light of the rash of these charges during the recent pandemic. Our argument begins with the premise that these statutes typically contemplate a 'core case' of terroristic threatening, e.g., someone calls in a bomb threat which forces the evacuation of a building. But these statutes have been variously revised and repurposed over the years, most notably to mass shootings, and more problematically to those who threaten to give others HIV. The recent COVID-19 charges seem to involve facts that are outside the 'core case,' so that even if terroristic threatening is a permissible charge in these cases, it is often not the most appropriate one. We conclude by suggesting that in many of the COVID-19 cases other charges should be made (criminal mischief, disorderly conduct, false reporting, etc.) instead of terroristic threatening, and that a lot of the expressive and deterrence benefits of more serious charges can be accomplished just as well by social disapproval.

Flanders, Chad and Stephen Galoob, 'Progressive Prosecution in a Pandemic' (2020) 110(4) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 685-706
Abstract: This article, written as introduction to a conference volume on 'progressive prosecution,' tries to situate the progressive prosecution movement in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The article briefly describes the movement and its main goals before considering three possible results of the pandemic on progressive prosecution: 1) an optimistic result, where the urgency of releasing people from prisons and jails bolsters the ideals of progressive prosecution, 2) a mixed result, where there is only a temporary convergence between the progressive prosecution agenda and a more self-interested public-health impetus for release, and 3) a pessimistic result, where concerns for public health and public safety serve to crowd out any effective movement for criminal justice reform. We conclude by laying out some future challenges to progresive prosecution.

Foffani, Luigi, 'Covid-19 Outbreak, Criminal Law and Role of the EU' (2020) 10(2) European Criminal Law Review 137-139

Freckelton, Ian, 'COVID-19: Criminal Law, Public Assemblies and Human Rights Litigation' (2020) 27(4) Journal of Law and Medicine 790-806
Abstract: Australia's criminal law was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic from the outset and then progressively as statutory measures and judicial rulings on matters such as bail entitlements, judge-alone trials, sentences and applications for demonstrations and public assemblies were made by courts. This column identifies some of the major decisions made during the period of the lockdown measures between March and July 2020, and reviews significant New South Wales judgments in relation to the lawfulness of mass gatherings during the period of lockdown as expert assessments of risks of community transmission of the virus waxed and waned. It explores the importation into Australia's criminal law of public health principles for the protection of the community, and its compatibility with traditional principles of criminal justice.

Froimson, Jill R et al, 'COVID-19, Home Confinement, and the Fallacy of "Safest at Home"' (2020) 110(7) American Journal of Public Health 960-961
Abstract: IPV is a public health crisis amid and exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the United States, one in four women and one in seven men experience severe physical IPV at some point in their lives. Transgender individuals report even higher levels, with some studies quoting lifetime prevalence of IPV of up to 50%.3 Restricted economic resources, unemployment, and high stress levels all correlate with an increase in both the incidence and the severity of IPV.

Fuentes, Gabriel A, 'Federal Detention and "Wild Facts" during the COVID-19 Pandemic Criminal Law' (2020) 110(3) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 441-476
Abstract: Extract from Introduction (page 442): This Article offers a framework for considering defendants' arguments for release based on the COVID-19 pandemic. It suggests that the shifting landscape of facts and scientific knowledge about this disease, as well as governmental responses to it, challenge practitioners and courts to grapple with an additional layer of complexity in applying the Bail Reform Act and the Constitution to federal detention decisions. It is now crucial for courts to push past the parties' representations and into the facts and science behind them. The challenge is to try to rely on our experience to search for the line between the known and unknown about the risk this new virus poses in jail environments, by venturing past the open grasslands in a hunt for the less visible 'wild facts' lurking in the forest. The lore of 'wild facts,' an abstract concept first articulated in the early twentieth century by philosopher William James, tells us that 'wild facts' are 'subtle, unexpected particulars' that lie not in law but in human experience, and that militate against the mechanical and impersonal application of a society's laws. 2 Now that COVID-19 has injected a new level of complexity into federal detention decisions, this Article uses the 'wild facts' concept as an inspiration for meeting the new challenge of complexity in federal detention.

Fuentes, Gabriel A and Mackenzie Krage, 'Federal Detention Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Follow-Up' (2020) 67(6) Federal Lawyer 11-19
Abstract: The article focuses on federal judges began seeing arguments for pretrial release, either at the initial detention stage or after detention during COVID-19 pandemic. It mentions risk of uncontrolled outbreaks in congregate jail settings posed an unacceptable risk to community safety, and that risks associated with incarceration. It also mentions courts have reasoned that the risks posed to a defendant by COVID-19 in terms of terms of Bail Reform Act.

Gilchrist, Heidi, '"Act Normal or Leave": When Law and Culture Collide' (2020) Columbia Journal of European Law (forthcoming)
Abstract: 'Act normal or leave' wrote the Prime Minister of the Netherlands before the 2017 elections in an open letter published on-line and in full-page newspaper advertisements. This article examines the idea of legislating 'normal' and what this means in a diverse world. I specifically explore laws that criminalize dress in Europe - burqa bans that can even carry jail time for women who cover their face in public. I look at these laws as forced assimilation and as simply a 'Muslim ban.' Not only is forced assimilation ineffective, it is a national security threat. In upholding and justifying these laws, I question whether the European Court of Human Rights has created a dangerous new right of the majority not to be offended. Although I argue against these criminal laws, I also consider the issue of what duty to integrate newcomers do have to a host country where they are living and ways in which pop culture can help this integration take place. I then analogize local laws in the United States that criminalize 'saggy pants.' In Louisiana, a young man died after being chased by police for wearing saggy pants. Although obvious differences, these laws share the flaw of using the force of law against a minority group by criminalizing dress. The COVID-19 pandemic and recent laws in Europe requiring face masks, but still criminalizing burqas, highlight the injustice.

Gover, Angela R, Shannon B Harper and Lynn Langton, 'Anti-Asian Hate Crime During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Reproduction of Inequality' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 647-667
Abstract: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is believed to have emerged in Wuhan, China in late December 2019 and began rapidly spreading around the globe throughout the spring months of 2020. As COVID-19 proliferated across the United States, Asian Americans reported a surge in racially motivated hate crimes involving physical violence and harassment. Throughout history, pandemic-related health crises have been associated with the stigmatization and "othering" of people of Asian descent. Asian Americans have experienced verbal and physical violence motivated by individual-level racism and xenophobia from the time they arrived in America in the late 1700s up until the present day. At the institutional level, the state has often implicitly reinforced, encouraged, and perpetuated this violence through bigoted rhetoric and exclusionary policies. COVID-19 has enabled the spread of racism and created national insecurity, fear of foreigners, and general xenophobia, which may be related to the increase in anti-Asian hate crimes during the pandemic. We examine how these crimes - situated in historically entrenched and intersecting individual-level and institutional-level racism and xenophobia - have operated to "other" Asian Americans and reproduce inequality.

Grace, Sara, 'Policing Social Distancing: Gaining and Maintaining Compliance in the Age of Coronavirus' Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice Article paaa029 (advance article, published 12 July 2020)
Abstract: Drawing on motivational posturing theory (MPT) and procedural justice theory (PJT), this article makes recommendations for how best to secure compliance with social distancing regulations. Applying those theories to--mostly observational--data from a study on the use and impact of penalty notices for disorder, the influences on cooperation during police-citizen encounters are explored. Whilst focusing on the English data/regulations, as both MPT and PJT have been tested internationally, the conclusions have relevance beyond these shores. The article proposes a sixth posture--compulsion, a form of resistant compliance--to the five set out by MPT. Focusing attention not just on whether compliance is achieved but how recognizes the risk to future legitimacy posed by only achieving compliance through coercion or the threat thereof. Lessons from the research are applied to policing social distancing, with regards to: securing compliance during interactions, self-regulation and enforcement action, and how to preserve police legitimacy.

Gradon, Kacper, 'Crime in the Time of the Plague: Fake News Pandemic and the Challenges to Law-Enforcement and Intelligence Community' (2020) 4(2) Society Register 133-148
Abstract: The Paper explores the problem of fake news and disinformation campaigns in the turmoil era of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. The Author addresses the problem from the perspective of Crime Science, identifying the actual and potential impact of fake news propagation on both the social fabric and the work of the law-enforcement and security services. The Author covers various vectors of disinformation campaigns and offers the overview of challenges associated with the use of deep fakes and the abuse of Artificial Intelligence, Machine-, Deep- and Reinforcement-Learning technologies. The Paper provides the outline of preventive strategies that might be used to mitigate the consequences of fake news proliferation, including the introduction of counter-narratives and the use of AI as countermeasure available to the law-enforcement and public safety agencies. The Author also highlights other threats and forms of crime leveraging the pandemic crisis. As the Paper deals with the current and rapidly evolving phenomenon, it is based on qualitative research and uses the most up-to-date, reliable open-source information, including the Web-based material.

Grayson-Morison, Reegan and Stacey Steele, 'Judicial Responses to COVID-19: Japanese and Victorian Courts' Use of Technology' (Asian Law Centre, Melbourne Law School, 24 June 2020) < >
Abstract: A/Professor Stacey Steele and Reegan Grayson-Morison discuss Japanese criminal justice in this second post on the Japanese justice system and responses to COVID-19. In this post, they consider detention applications (Gou Liu koryu), bail (Bao Shi hoshaku), the management of detention houses (Ju Zhi Suo kochisho, Liu Zhi Shi She ryuchisisetu) and prisons (Xing Wu Suo keimusho, Shao Nian Xing Wu Suo shonen keimusho), and the ability of lawyers to interact with clients. Reegan also offers some comparative insights into the measures being taken in Victoria in relation to these matters.

Gulati, Gautam and Brendan D Kelly, 'Domestic Violence against Women and the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Is the Role of Psychiatry?' (2020) 71(July-August) International Journal of Law and Psychiatry: Special Issue on Mental health, Mental Capacity, Ethics and the Law in the Context of Covid-19 (Coronavirus) Article 101594
Abstract: A heightened risk of domestic violence has been associated with infection-reducing measures undertaken by governments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatric services can play a key role in addressing this issue by (a) addressing certain risk factors for perpetration of domestic violence through, for example, assertive identification and management of substance misuse; (b) providing support, advocacy and treatment services for victims of domestic violence; and (c) multi-agency working to strengthen medical and social responses to domestic violence. At a time like this, it is important that multi-disciplinary mental health services are strengthened, rather than depleted, in order to address the pressing issues at hand.

Handayani, Tira Andhika and Wawan Kurniawan, 'The Effectiveness of the Law Enforcement of Health Protocols in Efforts to Prevent and Control Covid-19 by Satpol PP, Bandung City' (2021) 1(2) International Journal of Latin Notary 72-84
Jurisdiction: Indonesia
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 or better known as the Corona Virus is the virus that causes the Covid-19 pandemic. In several countries, including Indonesia, the problem of handling the spread of the corona virus pandemic (Covid-19) continues to be carried out. Since August 2020, the Regional Government of Bandung City has effectively implemented Bandung City Regulation Number 37 of 2020 concerning Guidelines for Adaptation of New Habits in the Context of Prevention and Control of Corona Virus Disease 2019. As a leading sector in suppressing the level of spread of the virus, the Bandung City Satpol PP has carried out. One of the efforts made by the Satpol PP as the implementer of the Bandung City government policy is by making several efforts ranging from socialization, appeals to enforcement. The Satpol PP, assisted by the joint apparatus of the National Police and the National Police, enforces restrictions in several areas that have the potential to accumulate masses at one point, such as areas that are densely populated with street vendors, cafes, parks etc. Law enforcement carried out by the Satpol PP is solely carried out to provide an understanding of the citizens of the importance of maintaining personal health and the environment during the current pandemic. The enactment of the Bandung mayor Regulation, Number 37 of 2020 concerning Guidelines for Adaptation of New Habits in the Context of Prevention and Control of Corona Virus Disease 2019. The number of people exposed to not using a mask is still a lot. The effectiveness of implementing health protocols becomes a question when the level of spread and the level of violations of health protocols is still relatively high.

Hansen, J Andrew and Gabrielle L Lory, 'Rural Victimization and Policing during the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 731-742
Abstract: Rural criminal justice organizations have been overlooked by researchers and underfunded in the United States, exacerbating problems caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Access to victims' services has been a longstanding issue in rural communities, but has become more difficult due to stay-at-home orders and changes in daily activities. Requirements such as social distancing, necessitated by COVID-19, have increased the risk of domestic violence and rural service providers are less prepared than those in more populated areas. Rural law enforcement agencies, on the other hand, have traditionally operated with smaller budgets and staffs--conditions that have complicated the response to the unprecedented event. Many of the recommended practices for policing during a pandemic have been more applicable to larger urban and suburban departments with more resources and officers extended across many units. The strain on rural victims' services and law enforcement has been felt only a few months into the coronavirus pandemic, while the long-term effects are not yet known.

Harris, Jasmine, 'COVID-19, Disability, and the Rise of a Modern Deinstitutionalization Movement' (2021) 106 Cornell Law Review Online (forthcoming)
Abstract: This Article argues that the current pandemic has raised the stakes (and, in some respects, has cleared the way) for a modern deinstitutionalization movement. The hotbeds of COVID-19 continue to be congregate 'custodial spaces' such as nursing homes, prisons/jails, psychiatric hospitals, group homes, and immigration detention centers. This project makes three unique contributions to the emerging legal literature on COVID-19 and equality law. First and descriptively, I show how the design of congregate facilities makes them ill-suited for effective responses to the current pandemic by interrogating early design choices as illustrative of penal intent and control. By juxtaposing the criminalization and institutionalization of disfavored bodies and minds through multiple bodies of law - criminal law, immigration law, and disability laws - a clearer image of structural subordination emerges that unites the often-siloed movements for racial and disability justice. Second, this Article offers a typology of legal interventions designed to address the growing COVID-19 risks to particularly vulnerable groups of people with pre-existing disabilities and older adults with compromised immune systems. This typology allows for a more critical examination of the ability of existing laws to address the systemic inequities of the current public health crisis. Third, with the previous lessons and framework, I join the normative conversation on reform versus abolition of largescale institutions as service providers with particular attention to the role of race and disability.

Hartmann, Mia RK and Rasmus Koss Hartmann, 'Frontline Innovation in Times of Crisis: Learning from the Corona Virus Pandemic' [2020] Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice (advance article, published 30 July 2020)
Abstract: The current COVID-19 pandemic brings about dramatic challenges for frontline police officers and their organizations. This will, we argue, likely hav

Harwood, Jo, 'Domestic Abuse and COVID-19: The Legal Challenges' in Carla Ferstman and Andrew Fagan (eds), Covid-19, Law and Human Rights: Essex Dialogues (School of Law and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, 2020) 237-245
Abstract: At a time when the home is presented as a place of safety in the face of Covid-19, there are major concerns that forced confinement is exacerbating the risks posed to victims of domestic abuse. Increased isolation, coupled with more limited opportunities to seek support, are presenting unprecedented challenges for victims and for the law in responding to domestic abuse. This paper takes as its focus these legal challenges, focusing particularly on the situation in the UK. It opens by addressing the implications for domestic abuse victims of the restrictions in movement. It then assesses the capacity of the criminal offence of coercive or controlling behaviour to respond to the rise in domestic abuse. It also explores the recent move to remote hearings within the family justice system, and associated access to justice concerns.

Hawdon, James, Katalin Parti and Thomas E Dearden, 'Cybercrime in America amid COVID-19: The Initial Results from a Natural Experiment' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 546-562
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered life, killing hundreds of thousands of people and leading many countries to issue 'stay-at-home' orders to contain the virus's spread. Based on insights from routine activity theory (Cohen & Felson 1979), it is likely that COVID-19 will influence victimization rates as people alter their routines and spend more time at home and less time in public. Yet, the pandemic may affect victimization differently depending on the type of crime as street crimes appear to be decreasing while domestic crimes may be increasing. We consider a third type of crime: cybercrime. Treating the pandemic as a natural experiment, we investigate how the pandemic has affected rates of cybervictimization. We compare pre-pandemic rates of victimization with post-pandemic rates of victimization using datasets designed to track cybercrime. After considering how the pandemic may alter routines and affect cybervictimization, we find that the pandemic has not radically altered cyberroutines nor changed cybervictimization rates. However, a model using routine activity theory to predict cybervictimization offers clear support for the theory's efficacy both before and after the pandemic. We conclude by considering plausible explanations for our findings.

Hoehn-Velasco, Lauren, Adan Silverio-Murillo and Jose Roberto Balmori de la Miyar, 'COVID-19 and Crimes Against Women: Evidence from Mexico' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3701472, Social Science Research Network, 1 September 2020)
Abstract: This paper considers whether the COVID-19 stay-at-home order affected crimes targeting women. We use national municipal-level crime data from Mexico's National Public Security System, which reports sexual crimes, lapses in alimony, domestic violence, and femicides. We track monthly changes in crime using an event-study design. Our results show three main patterns. First, lapses in alimony, sexual crimes, and domestic violence follow a U-shaped trend. Each crime declined and then rose back to their pre-COVID levels. Second, femicides, the most violent crime against women, remained constant during the pandemic. Third, we find that femicides declined in municipalities with alcohol sales prohibition

Howard League Scotland, 'Things Are Improving in Our Prisons ... Aren't They?' (2020) 65(5) Journal of the Law Society of Scotland 27
Abstract: Highlights the work of Howard League Scotland: ensuring that certain prisoners are released under the Coronavirus (Scotland) Act 2020; upholding prisoners' human rights during the COVID-19 lockdown restrictions; campaigning for the publication of prison-specific COVID-19-related data; and highlighting the need for prisons to continue to be monitored during COVID-19 when prison inspections have been suspended.

Ibrahimi, Adrianit and Besa Arifi, 'Defending the Rights of the Victims of Corruption in the Republic of Kosovo: With a Special Focus to the Pandemic COVID-19' (2021) 15(1: Challenges and Perspectives of Covid-19) SEEU Review 3-23
Abstract: Justice is not only about punishing the perpetrators but also protecting the rights of their victims. Corruption is not a victimless crime! Therefore, the main intention of this paper is to enlighten that protecting the rights of the victims of corruption is one of the crucial battles in the war against corruption. Winning this battle during the pandemic COVID-19 is grinding but of vital importance at the same time! Corruption has already been a remaining concern in the Republic of Kosovo. Notwithstanding, the situation with the pandemic COVID-19 has made the justice system, and not only, more fragile. Consequently, we are currently living in a perfect environment for corruption acts where the victims of corruption are not acknowledged and sometimes even 'garbled' with the victims of COVID-19! It is important more than ever to ensure effective remedies for persons who have suffered from corruption acts including the possibility of compensation for their damage. Indeed, the Republic of Kosovo is not a state party of the Civil Law Convention on Corruption. Yet this convention shall be the guide for establishing such legal avenues while the good practices of the United Kingdom and the French Republic shall be the aim and motivation for this.

Iftene, Adelina, 'COVID-19 in Canadian Prisons: Policies, Practices and Concerns' in Colleen M Flood et al (eds), Vulnerable: The Law, Policy and Ethics of COVID-19 (University of Ottawa Press, 2020) 447
Abstract: Correctional Service of Canada and the provincial prison systems have a duty to provide incarcerated individuals with health services that are comparable to those in the community, but they have failed to do so during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are inherent practical difficulties to implementing health care in prisons. In addition, prison demographics include a higher proportion of populations that are vulnerable to disease. These factors together mean that the prison response to COVID-19 must involve depopulation and the implementation of guidelines provided by public health agencies in all institutions. So far, the measures taken have been insufficient, as is evidenced by the rapid rates of spread of COVID-19 within prisons compared to the community. An overreliance on segregation of incarcerated individuals as a preventive measure raises concerns under s. 7 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the Charter) and international human rights. There are also equality concerns under s. 15 of the Charter, given the high proportion of Indigenous people in prison.

Jefferson-Bullock, Jalila, 'Let My People Go: A Call for the Swift Release of Elderly Federal Prisoners in the Wake of COVID-19' (2020) 32(5) Federal Sentencing Reporter 286-291

Jennings, Wesley G and Nicholas M Perez, 'The Immediate Impact of COVID-19 on Law Enforcement in the United States' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 690-701
Abstract: During pandemics, like COVID-19, law enforcement agencies are responsible for working with government and public health officials to contain spread, serve the local community, and maintain public order. Given the person-to-person spread of COVID19 through respiratory droplets, law enforcement officers are also at a heightened risk of exposure due to their close contact with members of the public. To protect officers, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other agencies have made numerous recommendations for law enforcement agencies to protect officers and the public. Departments around the country have responded to the pandemic in various ways, such as reassigning personnel to high-traffic areas, suspending training, roll calls, and community outreach initiatives, only issuing citations for low-level crimes, implementing safety precautions for officers, and limiting access to department facilities. The COVID-19 pandemic also has exposed some key obstacles for law enforcement, related to communication, resource management, the enforcement of public health restrictions, and changes to crime and service patterns. Based on these early/ initial responses and obstacles during the COVID-19 outbreak, the current paper highlights directions for future responses to pandemics to ensure the safety and security of police officers and the communities they serve.

Jiang, Feng and Chuanyu Xie, 'Roles of Chinese Police Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020) Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice Article paaa071 (advance article, published 28 December 2020)
Abstract: This article provides an overview of frontier issues of policing in China by examining the roles of police during the pandemic. It starts with a short introduction to the challenges and overall performance of China in keeping social order in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Then, it outlines four major missions the Chinese police have pursued, each with a sketch of what has been done and how law enforcement officials have managed to achieve their goals. It follows with a further insight into their strategies in social control in connection with the latest reforms on policing. Finally, it concludes briefly with features of Chinese policing.

Jones, Daniel J, 'The Potential Impacts of Pandemic Policing on Police Legitimacy: Planning Past the COVID-19 Crisis' (2020) 14(3) Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 579-586
Abstract: One of the biggest challenges facing modern policing in recent years has been the lack of police legitimacy. The tipping point of this phenomenon is often attributed to the Rodney King incident in Los Angeles in 1991, where Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers were videoed assaulting a lone black male. They were arrested and charged but eventually all were acquitted, thereby etching deep distrust between communities and police. Now the Rodney King example is an extreme and criminal act by police but it was the beginning of communities and media focusing on what the police were doing and how they were doing it. This lack of legitimacy coupled with what is referred to as the militarization of policing have lasting consequences and impacts on police-community relations and how interactions between police and community shape society today. In the wake of pandemic policing due to COVID-19, there are tales of two eventualities for police legitimacy that will be explored in this article: (1) The police response to the pandemic results in further militarization and draws deeper divides between police and communities or (2) the police response is compassionate and build on procedurally just operations resulting in the rebuilding of police legitimacy post-pandemic.

Kaukinen, Catherine, 'When Stay-at-Home Orders Leave Victims Unsafe at Home: Exploring the Risk and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 668-679
Abstract: The novel coronavirus pandemic (hereafter COVID-19) is likely to have unprecedented impacts on the incidence and impacts of crime and violence globally. This includes impacts to the risk, consequences, and decision-making of women experiencing violence by an intimate partner (hereafter IPV). Most importantly, the COVID-19 pandemic, and its impact on the risk of IPV is likely to differentially impact vulnerable populations, including minority women and those with long histories of victimization and mental health issues. This review paper explores the potential short- and long-term implications of COVID-19 on the risk of IPV, highlighting some of the most recent preliminary data. The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, record levels of male unemployment, added stressors in the home, including the care and home schooling of children, and the social distancing measures required by the epidemiological response, may serve to undermine the decades of progress made in keeping women and children safe at home. Victim police reporting, help-seeking decisions, and social service utilization during the pandemic are likely to be impacted by stay-at-home orders and social distancing requirements. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for providing safety planning and self-care for victims and their children.

Kemboi, Leo Kipkogei, 'Two COVID-19 Lessons That Were Long Overdue to Kenya's Justice Sector' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3625502, 12 June 2020)
Abstract: The two decisions made by policymakers in Kenya's because of COVID-19 were timely but were bound to happen. they are direct economic benefits for reducing the prison population and use of technology in courts. If the Prison population is reduced at least by 10%, the prison population will reduce by 22,372 prisoners. Using the GDP Per Capita as of 2018, we estimate that income gained would be equivalent to Ksh 4.3 billion whereas a 30% prison population reduction would be 67,115 prisoners and equivalent to Ksh 12.9 billion. The mechanism of technology must allow for more accountability.

Kirchmaier, Tom and Carmen Villa-Llera, 'Poverty and Crime: COVID and the "New Normal"' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3700329, Social Science Research Network, 27 September 2020)
Abstract: The ultimate aim of this paper is to shed light on the direction of causality between poverty and crime. For this we use the unexpected economic COVID-19 shock as an instrument, as different regions got hit in different ways, and at different times. We show preliminary results, which we are planning to update every month and hence are subject to change. We also document the spatial and temporal uptake of furlough and unemployment support schemes. We provide near-time insight into the economic impact of the pandemic on crime rates in England and Wales.

Kirchner, Stefan, 'End-of-Life Decisions Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic as a Practical Problem of Criminal Law Theory' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3576543, Social Science Research Network, 15 April 2020)
Abstract: The current Covid-19 pandemic threatens to overwhelm health care systems. Because many patients have to be provided with ventilators, there is a risk that not all patients will receive the medical help they require. This has already happened for example in Italy, Spain and France and at the time of writing, during the second week of April 2020, it appears likely that other countries will face the same shortages. In some countries, guidelines have been created to determine under which circumstances a patient will be allocated a ventilator. This allocation of scarce life-saving resources raises significant concerns regarding the protection of the right to life and respect for human dignity. By determining that a person's life has to end in order to re-allocate resources such as a respirator in an intensive care unit the patient is no longer an actor but becomes the mere object of the decision made by others. This is incompatible with the concept of human dignity, in particular when one takes into account the definition of human dignity employed by the German Federal Constitutional Court in several cases. This notion can be traced back to Immanuel Kant. In practice, however, medical decision-makers will be forced to choose between different patients. These choices can be deadly for one patient and potentially life-saving for the other, violate human dignity and place an inhuman burden on those who have to decide. This text aims to investigate this matter from the perspective of criminal legal theory and to provide guidance as to whether ending life-saving measures amounts to an action or an omission.

Koshan, Jennifer, Janet Eaton Mosher and Wanda Anne Wiegers, 'COVID-19, the Shadow Pandemic, and Access to Justice for Survivors of Domestic Violence' (2021) 57(3) Osgoode Hall Law Journal 739-799
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has co-existed alongside a far less visible 'shadow pandemic' of violence against women, with COVID-19 impacting the number and complexity of domestic violence cases and enabling new tactics for coercive control. This article provides a preliminary assessment of the extent to which Canada's responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have prioritized the safety of women and children, with a focus on the courts and women's access to justice. We examine court directives and judicial decisions triaging which cases would be heard as 'urgent,' as well as courts' decisions on the merits in cases involving domestic violence and COVID-19, spanning the areas of family, child welfare, criminal law, and civil protection orders. In the sixty-seven reported decisions in our sample, we find very little awareness overall of the heightened risks for survivors during COVID-19, in keeping with the pre-pandemic tendency of decision makers to focus on incident-based physical violence instead of patterns of coercive control. Our analysis also suggests that survivors' ability to prove domestic violence and secure court orders that would help to ensure their safety was hampered not only by procedural complexity but also by the reduced availability of a range of services--health, counselling, housing, and supervised access centres, for example-- as a result of COVID-19. The cases further reveal significant differences in judicial interpretation of the risks of COVID-19 relative to the risks of domestic violence, often depending on the area of law in question. This again aligns with observations of the judicial treatment of domestic violence prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, with different and sometimes conflicting norms and assumptions prevailing in different legal contexts. We conclude that despite some positive government responses and judicial decisions, COVID-19 has further exposed many of the gaps in knowledge about domestic violence and in the supports and resources necessary to make women and children safe that long pre-dated COVID-19. In addressing the ongoing pandemic of violence against women, we offer some suggestions of measures to improve access to justice during this and future disasters.

Kothari, Radha et al, 'COVID-19 and Prisons: Providing Mental Health Care for People in Prison, Minimising Moral Injury and Psychological Distress in Mental Health Staff' (2020) 60(3) Medicine, Science and the Law 165-168
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents substantial challenges to global health and social care systems. Mental health services have faced restrictions in service delivery, risking the deterioration of already vulnerable individuals. Mental health staff have been working with new risks, in unfamiliar ways, for which they often feel inexperienced and untrained, for example accessing and using personal protective equipment (PPE). Prisons face unique additional hazards to both prisoners and staff. Public Health England's recent report describes limited and variable COVID-19 testing, concerns about an outbreak in prisons and the unsuccessful follow-through of the early release strategy which, according to modelling, would considerably reduce deaths from COVID-19. The report also highlights the longer-term challenges.1 Whilst recognising these additional difficulties, we argue that there is precedent and evidence from which we can learn. We propose ways to optimise the support to staff and prisoners.

Kovarsky, Lee, 'Pandemics, Risks and Remedies' (2020) 106 Virginia Law Review Online 71-98
Abstract: There are lessons in every catastrophe, and the impact of Coronavirus-19 ('COVID') on America's prisoner population has been especially catastrophic. Jails and prisons are sites of unique peril because each facility bears the systemic risk of a single infection. That COVID tore through these facilities was predictable--the health infrastructure is deplorable, social distancing is impossible, and the community has heightened medical vulnerabilities. These places are pandemic tinder boxes, and COVID was more than enough to kindle the blaze. There is a temptation to view America's inability to protect her prisoners as a simple failure of political and bureaucratic will, but the shortage of such resolve was just one part of a more complex institutional disaster. In this Paper, I argue that COVID exposed a remedial deficit between pandemic risks that were systemic and remedies that were not. In so doing, I explore the surprisingly poor performance of the mechanisms that one might have expected to facilitate sufficient prisoner discharge: federal civil rights litigation, administrative release, and clemency power. The systemic health risk at jails and prisons requires remedies that are fast and scalable, but existing discharge mechanisms are too slow, require too much multilateral consensus, and concentrate discharge powers in the wrong institutions. To address future waves of pandemic infection, American jurisdictions should concentrate discharge powers in decision-makers who are closer to the most acutely affected localities. A concentration-and-localization principle is also a model for a broader back-end decarceration strategy.

Kugler, Matthew B et al, 'American Law Enforcement Responses to COVID-19' (2020) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (advance article, published 9 July 2020)
Abstract: During the spring and summer of 2020, what role did law enforcement play in promoting COVID-19 restrictions in the United States? Because most law enforcement in the US occurs at the local level, we conducted a survey of local police departments to examine their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results show that most departments, especially departments in smaller jurisdictions, played a minimal role in enforcing COVID-related restrictions and tended to only encourage compliance. Further, it was extremely rare for a department to use sophisticated surveillance technology to monitor COVID compliance. This lack of monitoring stands in stark contrast to both the regimes employed by several comparable industrialized countries and the broad surveillance powers permissible under the U.S. Constitution.

Lee, Janice, 'Note on COVID-19 and the Police Powers Doctrine: Assessing the Allowable Scope of Regulatory Measures During a Pandemic' (2020) 13(1) Contemporary Asia Arbitration Journal 229-248
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe disruptions not only to public health, but also to the global economy. In response, many States have enacted preventive control measures to curtail the spread of the virus, as well as rehabilitative measures aimed at protecting the economy. Due to the breadth, scope and (at present) uncertain duration of these measures, it is likely that these may result to investment claims from foreign investors whose investments have been severely affected. This Note will discuss one of the available defences to investment claims resulting from regulatory measures undertaken pursuant to public health, that of the doctrine of police powers. This doctrine recognises that reasonable governmental regulation does not result to compensable expropriation. This Note will further consider the challenges faced in the application of the police powers doctrine to the present pandemic situation.

Lelliott, Joseph, Andreas Schloenhardt and Ruby Ioannou, 'Pandemics, Punishment, and Public Health: COVID-19 and Criminal Law in Australia' (2021) 44(1) UNSW Law Journal 167-196
Abstract: This article examines the scope, application, and implications of criminal offences relating to the containment of COVID-19 in Australia. Drawing in part on existing research concerning criminalisation of HIV transmission, the article highlights actual and potential discriminatory consequences of the criminal justice approach to COVID-19, as well as consequences for persons' right to health. The article concludes that criminal offences relating to the spread of the virus must be precisely and narrowly circumscribed to be both fair and meaningful. Criminal prosecution and punishment can only be justified in a very small number of situations. Broad use of coercive and punitive powers, together with stigmatising rhetoric, may well be counterproductive to public health goals.

Lersch, Kim M, 'COVID-19 and Mental Health: An Examination of 911 Calls for Service' [2020] Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice Article paaa049 (advance online article, published 5 August 2020)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the rate and geographic distribution of 911 calls for service related to mental health issues during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the City of Detroit, MI, USA. The results suggest that the total number of calls for mental health issues was at the lowest level when compared with the same time period for the previous 3 years. Furthermore, as both the daily reported COVID-19 cases and related deaths increased over time, there was a significant decline in both suicide threats and suicides in progress. Significant hot spots were found for the total calls as well as for threats of suicide. These hot spots did not coincide with the spatial distribution of reported cases of COVID-19 by ZIP code. While higher and lower areas of reported cases were found, these differences by ZIP code were not found to be significant. When compared with the previous 3 years of data, the hot spot area was much smaller in 2020, implying that the mental health-related calls for service were more evenly spread throughout the city.

Leslie, Emily and Riley Wilson, 'Sheltering in Place and Domestic Violence: Evidence from Calls for Service during COVID-19' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3600646, 14 May 2020)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a worldwide slowdown in activity as more people practice social distancing and shelter at home. The attendant increase in time families spend in isolation, unemployment, and economic stress has the potential to lead to more incidents of domestic violence. In this paper we document the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on police calls for service for domestic violence. The COVID-19 pandemic and accompanying public health response led to a 10.2 percent increase in domestic violence calls. The increase in reported domestic violence incidents begins before official stay-at-home orders were put into place, is not driven by any particular demographic group, but does appear to be driven by households without a prior history of domestic violence.

Levenson, Laurie L, 'Climate Change and the Criminal Justice System' (Loyola Law School Los Angeles Legal Studies Research Paper No 2020-22, 1 August 2020)
Abstract: The past decade has been the warmest decade in history. But while there has been a great deal of attention paid to issues of infrastructure sustainability, less attention has been focused on the impact of climate change on our criminal justice system.This paper identifies how we can anticipate climate change will affect and create new challenges for law enforcement, prisons, prosecutorial and defense agencies, government offices, and communities.This article first examines three ways climate change is challenging our criminal justice system -from altering the types of crimes committed, to detrimentally impacting prisons, jails, and other criminal justice institutions, to challenging traditional doctrines of criminal law such as the necessity and duress defenses and causation. Drawing in part on lessons from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this article makes ten recommendations on how such challenges can be met.

Levin, Anthony and Trish Kashyap, 'Law Enforcement and Police Powers in NSW during COVID-19' (2020) 32(4) Judicial Officers Bulletin 29-33
Abstract: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March, the Commonwealth and NSW Parliaments have introduced temporary laws to enable the management of public health and safety and prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus. This article provides an overview of these laws with a focus on the exercise of discretion under novel or temporary police powers.

Levin, Benjamin, 'Criminal Law in Crisis' (Colorado Law Review Forum, 16 August 2020)
Abstract: In this Essay, I offer a brief account of how the COVID-19 pandemic lays bare the realities and structural flaws of the carceral state. I provide two primary examples or illustrations, but they are not meant to serve as an exhaustive list. Rather, by highlighting these issues, problems, or (perhaps) features, I mean to suggest that this moment of crisis should serve not just as an opportunity to marshal resources to address the pandemic, but also as a chance to address the harsh realities of the U.S. criminal system. Further, my claim isn't that criminal law is in some way unusual in this respect (i.e., similar observations certainly could be and have been made about the pandemic's exposure of long-lasting problems associated with the health care/insurance system, the tethering of social benefits to employment, pervasive inequality, and many other features of U.S. political economy). Nevertheless, the current moment provides an opportunity to appreciate the ways in which some of the most problematic aspects of criminal law in times of crisis are basic features of the U.S. carceral state in times of 'normalcy.' To this end, my argument proceeds in two Parts, each addressing one of the aspects or pathologies of U.S. criminal policy that the pandemic has exacerbated. In Part I, I address the absence of 'sentencing realism' or, perhaps more accurately, the failure to consider the reality of jails and prisons when imposing sentences or pretrial detention. In Part II, I address the basic limitations of thinking of 'the criminal system' as a single monolithic 'system,' or, even, as 'systematic' at all. What do commentators and lawmakers miss when they suggest or assume that criminal law and its administration are the same in a rural county in Colorado as in an urban county in New York? In each Part, I explain how the pandemic has made each phenomenon more easily identifiable, but also how each phenomenon defined the criminal system in pre-coronavirus days. Ultimately, I argue that the 'crisis' frame provides an opportunity for reform, but we must not allow the crisis frame to obscure the ways in which the criminal system was in crisis well before the first COVID-19 tests came back positive.

Longman, Craig, 'Criminal Law: Could the "great Writ" Lie to Release Prisoners at Risk from COVID-19?' (2020) 66 LSJ: Law Society of NSW Journal 74-75
Abstract: There is an imminent human disaster threatening Australian prisons, and the disproportionately high number of First Nation prisoners who are incarcerated within. Across the world, governments are recognising the risk to prisoners from the COVID-19 virus. Commentators have noted the 'notorious' status of prisons as incubators for infections, and the World Health Organization foresees the possibility that 'every prisoner' will be contaminated with COVID-19 'very quickly'.

Mack, Dallas, 'COVID-19' [2020] (6) Mack's Criminal Law Bulletin
Jurisdiction: UK
Abstract: This issue reviews recent cases that have considered the COVID-19 pandemic; in particular, this issue looks at the impact of this pandemic on bail and sentencing.

Maphumulo, Mtho, 'COVID-19 Law Enforcement Incompetence and Brutality Not a New Thing' (2020) 20(5) Without Prejudice 56-57
Abstract: It is often said that the best time to fix a leaking roof is in winter when there are no storms or heavy rains. This has proved to be true as South African law enforcement agencies inabilities have been exposed by the COVID-19 outbreak.

Marcum, Catherine D, 'American Corrections System Response to COVID-19: An Examination of the Procedures and Policies Used in Spring 2020' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 759-768
Abstract: This article will explore the federal and state correction system responses to COVID-19 as of early May 2020. Current statistics of infection rates and policy responses will be discussed. In addition, adjustments to inmate activities and staff will be reviewed, as well as responses by community corrections agencies.

Marsons, Lee and Sarah Nason, 'Prisoners and Mental Health Detainees' [2020] (October) Public Law 785
Abstract: Summarises key features of the Parole Board's annual report for 2019-20, including statistics on the number of prisoners released, the number it deemed necessary to retain in custody for public protection, and the number of Board members from ethnic minorities. Details the Board's guidance on the conduct of online hearings during the coronavirus pandemic, and the treatment of vulnerable prisoners.

Mazepa, Svitlana, 'COVID-19 and Its Impact on Ukrainian Criminal Law' in Ewoud et al Hondius (ed), Coronavirus and the Law in Europe (Intersentia, 2020)
Abstract: At the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020, a new dangerous disease appeared in the world, which was named 'Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)'. Each country decided how to react and what steps should be taken as a first priority. The fact that national governments were taking exceptional measures to slow down the spread of the virus and to deal with the pandemic has implications not only for criminal proceedings that are already underway but also for future ones. In this scrutiny, the author highlighted the legal response of Ukraine to the pandemic from the criminal law perspective. A number of restrictive measures and prohibitions were adopted, which were aimed at self-isolation. The focus in this contribution is on criminal law, as the pandemic has prompted changes to existing law, including criminal law and legislation. The immediate reaction of the Ukrainian parliament to the pandemic was to increase criminal liability and introduce administrative liability for violating quarantine. These changes have become the subject of this article. Also, a number of bills on inclusion in the current Criminal Code in connection with the coronavirus were analysed.

McCormick, John, 'New York on Pause, Crime on Hold' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3759277, 11 December 2020)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic abruptly changed American's lives in the spring of 2020 with stay-at-home (SAH) orders. COVID-19 significantly impacted crime rates related to domestic violence. I used crimes per week in the categories of rape, general sex crimes, child crimes, and the total of those three to assess the change in crimes relating to domestic violence. There was a decrease of reported crimes in 2020 as compared to the base year 2019, with a 42.84%, or 13.19, decrease in crimes per week total across the different crime categories. Each borough also had significant increases or decreases in crime based on their relative population. The boroughs with higher populations showed higher levels of crimes per week. Overall, the effect of SAH orders had minor impacts on crimes per week. When they were significant, they showed a decrease of 0.248 total crimes per week for every week since the SAH order started. There is still a distinct possibility that crime is still occurring but is unreported; however, the evidence is clear that police departments have less reports after a SAH order is put in place.

McGee , Robert W, 'Are the CDC's Corona Virus Statistics Fraudulent? An Accounting and Legal Analysis' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3590800, 1 May 2020)

Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the Corona virus situation and examines the literature that seems to suggest that some, or perhaps much of the reporting of Corona virus deaths is actually the result of deliberate misclassification. The accounting and legal literature is also examined to determine whether the misclassifications amount to fraud.

McKay, Tara, Jonathan Metzl and Jennifer Piemonte, 'Effects of Statewide Coronavirus Public Health Measures and State Gun Laws on American Gun Violence' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3680050, Social Science Research Network, 24 August 2020)
Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically shifted American public life, and with it patterns of gun violence. In this paper, we show that states' efforts to contain COVID-19 infections through statewide emergency declarations, Stay at Home orders, and phased reopening have significantly altered prevailing patterns of firearm injuries and deaths. We provide a systematic analysis of how state policy responses to COVID-19 affected overall levels of gun violence and specific kinds of shootings, including multiple victim and mass shootings. While emergency declarations and Stay at Home orders had a dampening effect on many forms of gun violence, we find that the number of people injured or killed by a firearm per day increased more than 15% following state reopening, on average. Over the first 30 days of reopening, we estimate that the average state had an additional 5 mass shootings than would be predicted absent the epidemic in the first 30 days of reopening. Additionally, we examine how COVID-related public health measures affect the composition of gun violence. We find that gun violence has followed workers and children home; even though workplaces and schools have closed, gun violence has likely reappeared in Americans' lives as domestic violence related shootings and child involved shootings during Stay at Home and school closure periods. Finally, we show that state gun laws worked together with COVID-related emergency declarations and Stay at Home orders to further decrease gun violence in some states. Conversely, in states with decreased criminal liability for firearm use, as in states with Stand Your Ground laws, we observe an exacerbating effect on firearm injuries and deaths during the emergency declaration and Stay at Home order periods. Only one policy, waiting periods for handgun purchases, significantly dampened reopening surges in gun violence. These findings suggest that state policy environments can substantially reduce the impacts of exogenous shocks like COVID-19 on American gun violence and provides guidance on which policies can be helpful and which can be harmful.

Miller, Antonia, 'Lawcodes Report: New Criminal Penalties for COVID-19 Related Offences' (2020) 32(4) Judicial Officers Bulletin 33-34
Jurisdiction: Australia
Abstract: The Lawcodes database provides unique codes, called Law Part Codes, for all NSW offences and Commonwealth offences dealt with in NSW. These law part codes are intended to improve the operation of the criminal justice system in NSW through the exchange, between major criminal justice agencies, of standardised electronic information regarding offences.

Miller, J Mitchell and Alfred Blumstein, 'Crime, Justice & the COVID-19 Pandemic: Toward a National Research Agenda' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 515-524
Abstract: The novel corona virus COVID-19 has become a worldwide public health pandemic that has induced anomic conditions impacting daily routines. COVID-19 response measures specifically alter regular schedules and both restrict and expand opportunities for various types of crime while presenting unprecedented challenges for the criminal justice system. For criminologists and criminal justice scientists, the virus also presents natural experiment conditions allowing for real-world theory tests and observation of the relative effectiveness of practice and policy options under weighty conditions. Toward synthesizing scientific discourse and forthcoming empirical work, we suggest the benefits of a COVID-19 crime and justice research program and offer some anchoring concepts. Contagion, containment measures (social distancing, facemasks, shelter-in-place, economic shutdown, virtual work and schooling, banned group gatherings), and social ordinance compliance (voluntary or enforced) posture a conceptual framework from which to align research on crime, justice, and victimization during the virus. After observing crime trends and justice system challenges, we suggest how the pandemic presents opportunities for review of various criminal justice, especially incarceration, policies. System change is a recurring theme across this special issue of the American Journal of Criminal Justice that features twenty additional contributions from a wide range of authoritative crime and justice scholars. These articles on traditional crime during the virus, virus specific hate crime and domestic violence, and the challenges posed by COVID-19 to law enforcement, the courts, and corrections will hopefully provide initial commentary toward deeper inquiry.

Milo, Dario et al, 'The Effect of COVID-19 on Cybersecurity and Cyber Breaches' (2020) 20(6) Without Prejudice 19-20
Abstract: With more employees working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of cybercrime has escalated, and the need to have proper systems and procedures in place has become even more important.

Minkler, Meredith, Joseph Griffin and Patricia Wakimoto, 'Seizing the Moment: Policy Advocacy to End Mass Incarceration in the Time of COVID-19' (2020) 47(4) Health Education & Behavior 514-518
Abstract: The mass human and economic casualties wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic laid bare the deep inequities at the base of the disproportionate losses and suffering experienced by diverse U.S. populations. But the urgency and enormity of unmet needs requiring bold policy action also provided a unique opportunity to learn from and partner with community-based organizations that often are at the frontlines of such work. Following a review of Kingdon's model of the policy-making process, we illustrate how a partnership in a large California county navigated the streams in the policy-making process and used the window of opportunity provided by the pandemic to address a major public health problem: the incarceration of over 2 million people, disproportionately African American and Latinx, in overcrowded, unsafe jails, prisons, and detention centers. We highlight tactics and strategies used, challenges faced, and implications for health educators as policy advocates during and beyond the pandemic.

Mishra, Anubhav, 'Prisoners' Dilemma: Is India a Real Follower of Reformative Theory?' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3710364, 3 October 2020)
Abstract: Every citizen of India has fundamental rights guaranteed under the Indian Constitution and hence the Nation is obligated to furnish the quality of life to its subjects the citizens. But on the other hand it is unfortunate to say that a country like India has no proper implementation of prisoner's rights. This paper mainly focuses on the right of Prisoners including those who are under trial and the responsibility of both legislation and judiciary to provide such fundamental rights which are very essential for the survival of humans which also includes personal liberty not just mere animal existence. This paper also covers the International as well as judicial perspective regarding the rights of prisoners as the honorable Supreme Court has highlighted that a prisoner, be it a convict or an under-trial, does not cease to be a living being and, while lodged in four walls of jail, he appreciates all his fundamental rights pleaded under the Constitution including the right to life. The author of this paper also focuses on the role of Jail authority and their liability for the suffering of prisoners during the time of Pandemic 'COVID- 19'.

Mohler, George et al, 'Impact of Social Distancing during COVID-19 Pandemic on Crime in Los Angeles and Indianapolis' (2020) 68 (May-June) Journal of Criminal Justice Article 101692
Abstract: Governments have implemented social distancing measures to address the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The measures include instructions that individuals maintain social distance when in public, school closures, limitations on gatherings and business operations, and instructions to remain at home. Social distancing may have an impact on the volume and distribution of crime. Crimes such as residential burglary may decrease as a byproduct of increased guardianship over personal space and property. Crimes such as domestic violence may increase because of extended periods of contact between potential offenders and victims. Understanding the impact of social distancing on crime is critical for ensuring the safety of police and government capacity to deal with the evolving crisis. Understanding how social distancing policies impact crime may also provide insights into whether people are complying with public health measures. Examination of the most recently available data from both Los Angeles, CA, and Indianapolis, IN, shows that social distancing has had a statistically significant impact on a few specific crime types. However, the overall effect is notably less than might be expected given the scale of the disruption to social and economic life.

Molldrem, Stephen, Mustafa I Hussain and Alexander McClelland, 'Alternatives to Sharing COVID-19 Data with Law Enforcement: Recommendations for Stakeholders' [2020] Health Policy (advance article, published 7 November 2020)
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, in some jurisdictions, police have become involved in enforcing coronavirus-related measures. Relatedly, several North American jurisdictions have established COVID-19 data sharing protocols with law enforcement. Research across a range of fields has demonstrated that involving police in matters of public health disproportionately impacts the most vulnerable and does more harm than good. This is reflected in the consensus against COVID-19 criminalization that has emerged among civil society organizations focused on HIV, human rights, and harm reduction. The European Data Protection Board has also released guidelines against re-uses of COVID-19 data for law enforcement purposes. This article offers an overview of the harms of criminalizing illnesses and strategies for health stakeholders to seek alternatives to sharing COVID-19 data with police agencies while facilitating interoperability with healthcare first responders. It also presents case studies from two North American jurisdictions - Ontario and Minnesota - that have established routine COVID-19 data sharing with police. We recommended seven alternatives, including designating COVID-19 data as sensitive and implementing segmented interoperability with first responder agencies. These guidelines can help ensure that health information technology platforms do not become vehicles for the criminalization of COVID-19, and that health data stay within the health system.

Moreira, Diana Nadine and Mariana Pinto da Costa, 'The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Precipitation of Intimate Partner Violence' [2020] (July-August) International Journal of Law and Psychiatry Article 101606
Abstract: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global pandemic and many have been victims of it long before Covid-19. International organizations have documented an increase in IPV reports during the current pandemic, raising awareness of the potential causes for such an increase. Reflecting on risk factors associated with IPV, and the underlying need of the perpetrators to exert control over the victims, it becomes increasingly important to understand how the current policies of social distancing, self-isolation, and lockdown can precipitate episodes of IPV. Furthermore, access to specialized services and health care can be compromised, and health care professionals face new challenges and demands imposed by the pandemic while managing IPV cases. This article begins by examining the main risk factors more commonly associated with IPV in the literature. It proceeds by reflecting on how these risk factors may be exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic, which can explain the increased number of reports. Finally, it emphasizes the new challenges faced by health care professionals, while assisting IPV victims during the pandemic and provides possible recommendations on actions to implement during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic to prevent such cases.

Ndedi, Professor Alain, 'Framework in Ending Gender-Based Violence with the Advent of the COVID 19 from an African Perspective' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3571319, 8 April 2020)
Abstract: African countries have been among the last to be hit by the global coronavirus pandemic. Yet, as the cases rise and governments rightfully take the necessary measures to slow the spread of the virus, the continent is likely to face widespread economic fallout as business slows to a near halt. (Ndedi, 2020) The emerging evidence of the impact of the recent global pandemic of COVID-19 on violence against women and girls needs some attention. In this paper, we are making recommendations to be considered by all sectors of society, from governments to international organisations and to civil society organisations in order to prevent and respond to violence against gender-based violence, during, and after the public health crisis with examples of actions already taken. In view of economic impact of the pandemic and its implications for violence against women and girls in the long-term. This paper draws upon the knowledge and experience of a wide range of experts who support solutions to end violence against women and girls.

Nicolson, Donald and Jago Russell, 'Covid-19 and Criminal Justice: Temporary Fixes or Long Term Reform?' in Carla Ferstman and Andrew Fagan (eds), Covid-19, Law and Human Rights: Essex Dialogues (School of Law and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, 2020) 207-215
Extract from Introduction: Countries across the globe have been struggling with the question of how to keep the wheels of justice turning during the Covid-19 pandemic. Accordingly, both the UK and Scottish governments have taken a number of measures to ensure the justice system does not grind to a halt despite rules requiring social isolation and social distancing. Most notably, they have moved court hearings (and even trials) online and the Scottish government has extended the exceptions to the hearsay rule to cover witnesses who cannot be in court because of Covid-19.

Nigam, Shalu, 'COVID-19: India's Response to Domestic Violence Needs Rethinking', South Asia Journal (14 May 2020)
Abstract: This essay investigates the gaps in the state's response in India to the increase in incidents of violence during the lockdown and argues that a robust comprehensive plan is required to address different aspects of violence women are facing in the largest democracy. The government cannot miss the chance to protect women from violence. In order to imagine a gender just violence free world, the need is to impose the lockdown on the collective imagination that reiterate gender stereotypical notions and to put the viruses of patriarchy and poverty in quarantine and isolation forever. By maintaining social distancing with the misogynist ideas and developing a plan to eliminate inequalities in all forms, gender justice and human rights could be achieved and the rights guaranteed under the Article 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution can be reclaimed.

Nigam, Shalu, 'COVID-19: Right to Life with Dignity and Violence in Homes' (2020) 11(1) SPRI Vision 97-99
Abstract: COVID-19 has caused illness and deaths worldwide, and at the same time, it has also re-exposed many other worst vulnerabilities that exist within the society since ages. The fragility of the pandemic has gender dimensions. Patriarchal violence is existing for ages, yet it is manifesting itself extensively now. For instance, during the lockdown, the violence against women and children has risen within homes. This is despite the fact that during COVID-19, home has emerged as a significant space which could provide safety from the spread of the disease. Countries worldwide have enacted special policies and programs to deal with increasing violence against women in homes during the pandemic. In India, the stakes are high as almost half a billion women stay at risk. Therefore, there is a need to evolve a comprehensive robust response plan to tackle the emerging challenges. The Supreme court recently gave directions regarding the provisions of Shramik trains, food and work among other facilities to the migrant workmen, however, the urgent need is also to permanently notify domestic violence as an `essential service' to ensure that in calamities or otherwise support to women victims remain available round the clock. Also, plans have to be made to support women who walked back while facing adversities. Schemes for compensation and rehabilitation packages are essential to support children who are being orphaned or are facing risk due to the pandemic. Moreover, as the restrictions are being eased down, it is crucial to recognize the link between the consumption of liquor by men and its proportionality to the incidences of abuse against women as been highlighted by several anti-arrack movements led earlier. While dealing with the virus, it is vital that all other existing ailments that this pandemic is fueling, be taken care of, such as patriarchy, discrimination, poverty, inequalities among others which are adversely affecting the society. Scientists will find the treatment for coronavirus, but for all other anathemas, the society has to find a permanent cure. Article 21 of the constitution guarantees life with dignity. But the fact remains that domestic violence existed earlier and is increasing during the pandemic denying women their basic survival. Unless the state holds perpetrators accountable, it is not going to disappear. A campaign to spread a strong message that there is a zero-tolerance for violence against women is essential. In the long term, the need is to address entrenched structural discrimination in order to eliminate patriarchy and to restore the right to dignified life for every person. In the post-COVID world, the society needs to isolate the patriarchal notions and quarantine the misogyny to reimagine the violence-free gender-just world.

Nomani, MZM et al, 'Quarantine Law Enforcement and Corona Virus (COVID-19) Pandemic in India' (2020) 14(4) Journal of Xidian University 536-542
Abstract: The classical remedies for quarantine law enforcement are rooted to development of legal theory as a body of rules and principles of common law. The earliest precedent of quarantine law dates back to the 1824 in Gibbons v. Ogden ruling of full bench of United States Supreme Court. The Indian Penal Code, 1860 contains provisions on public health and safety to deal the quarantine enforcement. The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 as a special law applied to the containment of epidemics like cholera, malaria, dengue, swine flu and COVID-19 in India. The nation-wide lockdown, from March 25, 2020 to April 14, 2020 uniquely added Disaster Management Act, 2005 for the preventive strategy of the COVID-19. The paper takes a legal stance on the quarantine law enforcement in sanctioning the lockdown and social distancing rule in the light ruling of Federal Court of San Fransisco in Jew Ho v. Williamson and Indian Supreme Court decisions in Municipal Council Ratlam v. Vardichand and Alakh Alok Srivastava v. Union of India to meet the contemporary challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in India.

Noor, Muhammad Nouman and Farah Haneef, 'Threat of Crimes Related to Robbery During Covid-19: Special Focus on Pakistan' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3830792, 20 April 2021)
Abstract: Corona virus which is also called as COVID-19 outbreaks first time in Wuhan, city of China in December, 2019 and then spread all over the world. Currently, it is also declared as global pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) as not even a single country of world is left which is safe from this disease. As per International Labor Organization (ILO), this global pandemic can cause different threats on the population like hunger, unemployment and financial cries. These crises may cause increase in crimes like robbery. In this paper we have discussed the facts and figures about the threats caused by COVID-19. We also elaborated the threat of crimes like robbery and discussed some technological preventive measures like Drones, Intelligent CCTV Cameras, Central Command & Control Centers and Artificial Intelligent Sensors which can be adopted to stop the robberies during the pandemic as Police will be mostly dealing to ensure check and balance of SOPs developed for stopping spread of corona virus.

Nowotny, Kathryn et al, 'COVID-19 Exposes Need for Progressive Criminal Justice Reform' (2020) 110(7) American Journal of Public Health 967-968
Abstract: Although some correctional entities have embraced the need for temporary reforms, many others remain opposed. This crisis reiterates the need for progressive criminal justice policy reforms--in particular, the wider adoption of compassionate release and the elimination of cash bail--and has shown that policy change is possible. Immediate action will have a positive impact on slowing the spread of COVID-19 and should become standard practice to alleviate the health harms caused by mass incarceration.

Nunez, Fernando, 'Reentering During a Pandemic' (2020) 168(Special Issue: Law Meets World) UCLA Law Review Discourse 144-154
Abstract: Criminal record clearing remains an important tool to combat the overrepresentation of Black and Latinx people in unemployment and homelessness statistics that is a consequence of systemic racism. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these barriers by making it harder to clear criminal records while increasing the demand for employment and housing. Specifically, the pandemic has made it difficult to access vital criminal records, access the courts, and access reentry service providers. In so doing, the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to increase the existing racial disparities in access to jobs, housing, and other important areas of life. The pandemic, however, presents an opportunity for innovation and adaptation in the provision of reentry services with a race equity lens. It is something that reentry advocates have long called for.

Nwokeke, Chidera, 'Does the Law Support the Grant of Posthumous Pardon in Nigeria?' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3579276, 18 April 2020)
Abstract: This article examines the position of our law with regards to granting of posthumous pardon. Who can benefit from presidential pardon? The effect of presidential pardon and its impact on COVID-19.

Oliva, Jennifer D, 'Policing Opioid Use Disorder in a Pandemic' University of Chicago Law Review Online (forthcoming)
Abstract: This essay examines the federal government's pandemic-provoked waiver of long-standing legal and regulatory barriers to evidence-based opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment aimed at enhancing access to OUD care while mitigating the risk of exposure to COVID-19. OUD is a highly stigmatized, chronic neurological disease with a poorly understood etiology. The prevailing approach in the United States, however, has been to criminalize individuals with OUD. This is because U.S. drug policy has been long dominated by the antiquated view that OUD is a deviant moral failing that deserves prosecution instead of a complex health care condition that demands evidence-based treatment. The persistence of such anti-scientific theories about OUD motivated the federal government's creation of a surveille-and-supervise regulatory regime that isolates OUD treatment from the traditional health care delivery system and prioritizes the policing of individuals with OUD over the provision of expansive access to care. Unlike prior U.S. drug crises, which were attributed to the alleged immoral nature of targeted racial and ethnic minority groups, the country's current drug use and overdose dilemma has been characterized as a predominantly rural and suburban white American problem instigated by clinical overprescribing and the aggressive and fraudulent marketing of opioid analgesics. This popular narrative, which shifts blame for use disorder from the white 'victim,' to unscrupulous prescribers and Big Pharma, changed the substance use disorder solutions rhetoric from policing and punishment to public health interventions. Consequently, federal health officials were more amenable to policies aimed at enhancing assess to OUD treatment as the novel coronavirus began to sweep over the United States in early months of 2020. In fact, they quickly waived several of the rigid federal legal requirements that attend to OUD treatment--and have long-obstructed access to OUD therapeutics--at the inception of the COVID-19 national health emergency. The federal government's decision to waive certain access to treatment barriers for individuals with OUD was a long overdue positive development. There is no question that the federal agencies that oversee the draconian U.S. OUD therapeutic regulatory regime ought to make those waivers permanent post-pandemic. This essay argues, however, that the benefits of the OUD-related COVID-19 waivers have disproportionately inured to individuals who use buprenorphine and are overwhelmingly white at the expense of individuals who use methadone and are overwhelmingly persons of color. This is particularly tragic given that it was considerably easier to obtain a prescription for officed-based buprenorphine than access methadone administration treatment under the drug control regulatory regime pre-pandemic. The essay concludes by advancing a series of additional reforms beyond the current COVID-19 waivers that the federal government should adopt to ensure more equitably enhance access to OUD treatment.

Osler, Mark William, 'Criminal Justice Amid the Pandemic of 2020' (Univerity of St Thomas (Minnesota) Legal Studies Research Paper No 20-23, 2020)
Abstract: Tragedy is the very nature of criminal law. Every bit of it is about tragedy, from the pain of the victims to the harm done to offenders through punishment. The enterprise as a whole, even at its best, presents a practical and spiritual challenge to those that work within its dirty, clanking machinery. And then came 2020, bringing with it a pandemic which ravaged prisons, shuts down the courts, and destroyed the economy, especially for the least among us. Like a snow-globe that reveals its nature when shaken, the shocks of 2020 have revealed a striking and unsettling picture of criminal justice in the United States.This book chapter is a first cut at describing some of that picture. It looks at the impact of the pandemic on prisons and jails, on crime, on its intersection with the killing of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officers, and something more deeply hidden but significant: 2020's grinding away of the last bits of emotional connection to their work for some of the people who work in this dystopian system.

Owa, Funmilola Temitope et al, 'Impact of COVID-19 on Community Relationship and Technical Preparedness of Law Enforcement Agencies in Nigeria' (2020) 5(2) KOGJOURN 128-143
Abstract: The covid-19 pandemic has activated business unusual for the Nigeria law enforcement agencies and fashion unprecedented challenges as crime patterns went virtual away from the physical search, arrest and charge which the agencies are used to. Station offices went dry as reactive policing; complainants coming to report cease due to the implementation of covid-19 safety protocols. It is against this backdrop that this study investigates the impact of covid-19 on community relationship and technical preparedness of law enforcement agencies in Nigeria. The study focused on Department of State Services, The Nigeria Police Force, The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence Corps and The Economic and Financial Crime Commission in Ilorin, Kwara State. The study engaged survey research design; questionnaires were designed in five-point Likert scale to extract primary data. The questionnaires were purposively distributed to officers of these security agencies, simple ordinary regression was used to analyze the data. This study was underpinned by the crime pattern theory. Findings from the study revealed that covid-19 has a significant and positive effect on community relationship and technical preparedness of the Nigeria law enforcement agencies. Thus, the study recommends that the laws enforcement agencies should use the Covid-19 period to educate, enlighten the populace and link the endangered one to palliative centers rather that the extortion and harassment of the people while government and head of these security agencies should step up the technological and trained manpower level to be equal with the world best standard and practice on law enforcement.

'Parole Board' [2020] (July) Public Law 569-570
Jurisdiction: UK
Abstract: Highlights the Parole Board's February 2020 publication of its Operational Protocol to make transparent to the public, prisoners and victims the procedures it will follow when taking decisions. Notes the May 2020 release of its Strategy and Business Plan for 2020-2022, its guidance on the holding of oral and remote hearings during the coronavirus pandemic, and its collation of decisions under the reconsideration mechanism introduced in June 2019.

Pasculli, Lorenzo, 'Coronavirus and Fraud in the UK: From the Responsibilisation of the Civil Society to the Deresponsibilisation of the State' (2020) 25(2) Coventry Law Journal 3-23
Abstract: The sudden move of our lives online during the coronavirus pandemic has dramatically increased fraud risks. The personal and economic harms are enormous. The UK Government is responding with a two-fold approach. On the one hand, it relies on traditional law enforcement. On the other hand, it seeks to encourage individuals, businesses and public agencies to take responsibility in controlling and preventing crime by changing their practices through information campaigns and risk assessment and management., a strategy known as 'responsibilisation'. While literature in the last few decades has broadly analysed the social implications of responsibilisation on crime control in general, not many studies have focused on the specific area of financial crime. This study assesses the UK response to COVID-19-related fraud risks in light of the literature on responsibilisation through a comparative review of different policies and practices by various government agencies. Our analysis will reveal that the UK Government's two-fold approach to fraud and financial crime is inherently inadequate to effectively prevent crime. Strained law enforcement agencies and regulators struggle to cope with the high numbers of reported frauds. As a result, both deterrence and retribution are undermined. On the other hand, the fixation on the surgical identification, dissection and rectification of a myriad of micro-situations that can entail a risk of crime causes the government to lose sight of the root causes of crime - biological, psychological, social, cultural, economic and political. After our critical discussion, we will put forwards some recommendations to improve not only COVID-19-related anti-fraud policies and practices but, more generally, the response to fraud and financial crime.

Payne, Brian K, 'Criminals Work from Home during Pandemics Too: A Public Health Approach to Respond to Fraud and Crimes against Those 50 and Above' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 563-577
Abstract: This paper uses the public health framework to address the apparent impact of the coronavirus on the victimization experiences with a specific focus given to those over the age of 50. The bulk of attention is given to fraud victimization, with consideration also given to parent abuse, partner violence, and patient abuse. A review of data from the Federal Trade Commission shows that reports of most types of fraud grew significantly in the first three months of 2020 in comparison to the same time period in 2019. Differences between fraud experiences based on age are considered. Older persons lost much more to fraud than younger persons, and far more in 2020 than 2019. In addition, they reported being targeted more often for certain types of cybercrime (i.e., tech support scams). While devastating to everyone, it is concluded that the coronavirus will potentially have a more significant impact on the financial health of older persons than younger persons. It is concluded that minimizing the consequences of all forms of crimes targeting older adults will be best achieved by using a public health approach.

Persak, Nina, 'COVID-19 and the Social Responses Thereto: Penal and Criminological Lessons, Human Rights and Rule of Law Implications' (2020) 28(3) European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 205-216
Abstract: There are many humbling lessons to be learnt from the social response to this virus, lessons that criminal law and criminological field can put into perspective, and it is a few of those lessons that will be addressed in this editorial.

Piquero, Alex R et al, 'Staying Home, Staying Safe? A Short-Term Analysis of COVID-19 on Dallas Domestic Violence' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 601-635
Abstract: COVID-19 has wreaked havoc on the lives of persons around the world and social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. While designed to protect people from the coronavirus, one potential and unintended consequence of such orders could be an increase in domestic violence - including abuse of partners, elders or children. Stay-at-home orders result in perpetrators and victims being confined in close quarters for long periods of time. In this study, we use data from Dallas, Texas to examine the extent to which a local order was associated with an increase in domestic violence. Our results provide some evidence for a short-term spike in the 2 weeks after the lockdown was instituted but a decrease thereafter. We note that it is difficult to determine just how much the lockdown was the cause of this increase as the domestic violence trend was increasing prior to the order.

Pires de Vasconcelos, Natalia, Maira Rocha Machado and Daniel Wang, 'COVID-19 in Prisons: A Study of Habeas Corpus Decisions by the Sao Paulo Court of Justice' [2020] Revista de Administracao Publica (forthcoming)
Abstract: Brazil has become the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Global South--a pandemic that disproportionately affects vulnerable populations, especially those detained and imprisoned. Legal institutions are struggling to respond. In this paper, we focus on the National Council of Justice's Recommendation 62, issued March 17, 2020, which recommends that judges take several measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection in prisons. We test this recommendation's impact by looking at habeas corpus decisions in the Sao Paulo Court of Justice. The exploratory findings presented here indicate that Recommendation 62 has little impact on habeas decisions. In general, citing the recommendation does not lead the Court to grant early release or house arrest to those detained, and most habeas actions are decided against petitioners. This is true even when petitioners claim to be part of a risk group or their alleged offense did not involve violence or serious threat--factors that should favor habeas relief under Recommendation 62.

'Police Minister Welcomes the Decrease in Serious and Violent Crimes since the Lockdown: Info' (2020) 113(5) Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine 57
Jurisdiction: South Africa
Abstract: During April 2020, the Minister of Police, Gen Bheki Cele, welcomed the general decrease in serious and violent crimes, attributing this to, among others, the prohibition of the sale and movement of liquor since the COVID-19 nationwide lockdown.

Pope, Miles, 'What We Have Wrought: Compassionate Release in the Time of Our Plague' (2021) 64(2) Advocate 20-26 (link to PDF of whole issue)
Abstract: The article offers information on the U.S. federal criminal justice system which is driven by a deep-seated commitment to putting people in prison for really long periods of time. It discusses that even the basic screening questionnaire for those entering the facility is deficient, failing to ask about common symptoms of COVID-19 as the Second Circuit explained, Congress contemplated that a range of possible circumstances, including long sentences, could qualify as a compelling basis.

Posick, Chad et al, 'Child Victim Services in the Time of COVID-19: New Challenges and Innovative Solutions' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 680-689
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: The impact of COVID-19 has been felt by all facets of the criminal justice system and victim services agencies. The ability to monitor and report maltreatment has been severely limited for organizations that work with children of abuse and neglect; this is particularly troubling given that abuse and neglect are likely to rise during times of distress and turmoil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of organizations that work with children exposed to maltreatment, highlight the novel approach of Child Advocacy Services, SEGA, Inc. (CASSEGA), the sponsoring agency for Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) and the Ogeechee Visitation Centers, in rural southeast Georgia and how the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged this work, and develop strategies that can be put into place to alleviate these challenges for other child-serving organizations.

Pyrooz, David C et al, 'Views on COVID-19 from Inside Prison: Perspectives of High-Security Prisoners' (2020) 3(2) Justice Evaluation Journal 294-306
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: People confined in jail and prison are especially vulnerable to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Corrections officials across the country have responded by shifting institutional practices, including suspending visitation and programming, as well as releasing some prisoners early. Missing from leading accounts of COVID-19 in correctional facilities are the perspectives of prisoners. This study examined perceptions of risks and responses among a random sample of 31 high-security male prisoners in Oregon. In-depth interviews were conducted by phone in private attorney rooms between April and May 2020. Mixed method data revealed that respondents felt it was a matter of when, not if, the disease would spread throughout the prison system, due primarily to transmission from correctional officers. Yet prisoners were not highly worried about contracting the disease. This was due, in part, to being physically and socially isolated in restrictive housing, which in this instance they viewed as advantageous. Respondents believed the threat of the virus was being taken seriously by prison officials but lacked confidence in their ability to prevent an outbreak or effectively treat infected prisoners. Strategies are needed to mitigate the spread, fear, and consequences of COVID-19 in correctional facilities, as this disease has the potential to upend the functions and purposes of the American prison.

Ramaswamy, Megha et al, 'Criminal Justice: Involved Women Navigate COVID-19: Notes From the Field' (2020) 47(4) Health Education & Behavior 544-548
Abstract: In March-April, 2020, we communicated with a cohort of criminal justice-involved (CJI) women to see how they were navigating COVID-19, chronic illness, homelessness, and shelter-in-place orders in Oakland, Birmingham, and Kansas City. We report on conversations with N = 35 women (out of the cohort of 474 women) and our own observations from ongoing criminal justice involvement studies. Women reported barriers to protecting themselves given widespread unstable housing and complex health needs, though many tried to follow COVID-19 prevention recommendations. Women expressed dissatisfaction with the suspension of research activities, as the pandemic contributed to a heightened need for study incentives, such as cash, emotional support, and other resources. COVID-19 is illuminating disparities between those who can follow recommended actions to prevent infection and those who lack resources to do so. Concerted efforts are required to reduce inequities that put the 1.3 million U.S. women under criminal justice supervision at risk for infection and mortality.

Reicher, Stephen and Clifford Stott, 'Policing the Coronavirus Outbreak: Processes and Prospects for Collective Disorder' (2020) 14(3) Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 569-573
Abstract: This briefing is divided into three parts. First, we outline the factors which lead to incidents of collective disorder (or riots). Secondly, we consider how the overall response to the coronavirus outbreak and the role of the police within this response will impact the probability of such disorder. Thirdly, we apply these understandings to three specific scenarios of potential disorder.

Richards, Edward P, 'A Historical Review of the State Police Powers and Their Relevance to the COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020' (2020) 11(1) Journal of National Security Law & Policy 83-105
Abstract: In response to COVID-19, U.S. states and localities are exercising various health actions under their inherent police powers--often facing stiff resistance by the public and the courts. Edward P. Richards outlines how states and localities enjoyed broad police powers over public health since the colonial period. The Supreme Court limited this authority only in cases of discrimination. Historically, courts deferred to local authorities or legislatures during health emergencies; the general public, in contrast, often demonstrated greater resistance. At times, this resulted in devastating outcomes, such as when public resistance to masks during the 1918-1919 flu pandemic caused a second wave and rise in deaths. COVID-19, Richards argues, is unprecedented because both the public and, unusually, the courts are resisting local public health orders. Many judges today are substituting their own judgment for that of public officials, raising questions over the future of traditional police powers.

Roure, Jodie G, 'The Reemergence of Barriers during Crises & Natural Disasters: Gender-Based Violence Spikes among Women & LGBTQ+ Persons during Confinement' (2020) 21(2) Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 23-50
Abstract: The article focuses on gender-based violence (GBV) during crises and natural disasters, and the reemergence of obstacles that impede the protection of human rights of vulnerable groups often resulting in an increase of GBV, particularly among women and LGBTQ+ persons. It introduces GBV through the case study of Puerto Rico, examining four of the 2020 transgender murders in the United States that occurred there. By exploring how restriction of movement during times of crises affect the human rights of women and LGBTQ+ persons, it will emphasize the particular vulnerability of transgender persons. It offers a webbased research platform, The Domestic Violence Project, as an example of efforts youth and community based organizations can explore to ensure the promotion, protection, and safety of vulnerable groups, particularly women and LGBTQ+ persons during quarantine periods including COVID-19, and proposes recommendations to nation-states, local governments, and communities.

Sabadell, Ana Lucia and Thamires Vieira, 'Isolation and "Toxic" Privacy In Times Of Pandemic: Female Suffering' (2020) 2(2) Humanities and Rights Global Network Journal 25-41
Abstract: The practice of self-isolation as a preventive and combat measure against the Covid-19 virus brought up the discussion about domestic violence practiced against women in Brazil. The author understands that the legal protection of intimacy favors the process of denial of this type of violence and presents a reflection on the practical measures that can be taken to face violence against women in the current pandemic context.

Sacco, Matteo Antonio et al, 'The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Domestic Violence: The Dark Side of Home Isolation during Quarantine' (2020) 88(2) Medico-Legal Journal 71-73
Abstract: Domestic violence is a global public health problem. It takes many different forms and leads to significant physical and psychological consequences for the victim and the whole family. Situations that may prompt episodes of violence in the family include stress, emotional disappointment, economic factors, bad and cramped housing, and alcohol or drug abuse. How does the government's forced home isolation to contain Covid-19 infections impact on this type of abuse? Numerous articles have reported a decrease in reports of domestic violence since quarantine began but how reliable is these data? Is it a potential wake-up call for public institutions? We discuss the risks associated with quarantine measures during the pandemic and suggest the measures to prevent and improve the reporting of abuse cases.

Sanga, Sarath and Justin McCrary, 'The Impact of the Coronavirus Lockdown on Domestic Violence' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3612491, 28 May 2020)
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: We use 911 call records and mobile device location data to study the impact of the coronavirus lockdown on domestic violence. The percent of people at home sharply increased at all hours, and nearly doubled during regular working hours, from 45 to 85 percent. Domestic violence increased 12 percent on average and 20 percent during working hours. Using neighborhood-level identifiers, we show that the rate of first-time abuse likely increased even more: 16 percent on average and 23 percent during working hours. Our results contribute to an urgent need to quantify the physical and psychological burdens of prolonged lockdown polices.

Saraswati, Putu Sekarwangi, 'Law Enforcement during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia' (2020) 5(7) International Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences Studies 32-36
Abstract: Law enforcement is the process by which efforts are made for the establishment or functionning of legal norms as a real guide to behavior in traffic or legal relations in the life of society and the state. The community needs law enforcement for a sense of justice, legal certainty, and benefits in society. At this time the Covid-19 Pandemic spread throughout the country. Although there is still a Covid-19 Pandemic, law enforcement continues. Law enforcement is carried out by law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement agencies that continued to carry out law enforcement during the Covid-19 Pandemic period were the National Police, the Attorney General's Office, the Supreme Court (MA) and the KPK through law enforcement officials. Law enforcement continues to be carried out during the Covid-19 Pandemic. With the aim of maintaining a sense of justice, legal certainty, and benefits in the community during the Covid-19 Pandemic era. The National Police in enforcing the law during the Covid-19 Pandemic era by issuing a Secret Telegram (TR) and the police crack down on crowds of citizens. In law enforcement during the Covid-19 Pandemic period, the Supreme Court tightened the work system in the judiciary. By issuing MA Circular Letter Number 1 of 2020 concerning Guidelines for Implementing Tasks During the Prevention Period of Covid-19 Distribution within the Supreme Court and its Judicial Bodies. During the Covid-19 Pandemic period the Attorney General's Office continued to carry out law enforcement, the prosecutor's examination process in a case continued during the Covid-19 Pandemic period and continued to carry out trials. In law enforcement during the Covid-19 Pandemic period, the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) prosecution such as investigators and prosecutors continued.

Sarel, Roee, 'Crime and Punishment in Times of Pandemics' (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3621478, 12 June 2020)
Abstract: How should we think about crime deterrence in times of pandemics? The economic analysis of crime tells us that potential offenders will compare the costs and the benefits from crime and from innocence and then choose whichever option that is more profitable. We must therefore ask ourselves how this comparison is affected by the outbreak of a pandemic and the policy changes which may accompany it, such as governmental restrictions, social distancing, and economic crises. Using insights from law and economics, this article investigates how the various components in the cost-benefit analysis of crime might change during a pandemic, focusing on COVID-19 as a test case. Building on classical theoretical models, existing empirical evidence, and behavioral aspects, the analysis reveals that there are many potentially countervailing effects on crime deterrence. The article thus highlights the need to carefully consider which aspects are applicable given the circumstances of the pandemic, as whether crime deterrence will increase or decrease should depend on the strength of the effects at play.

Schotland, Sara, 'A Plea to Apply Principles of Quarantine Ethics to Prisoners and Immigration Detainees During the COVID-19 Crisis' (2020) 7(1) Journal of Law and the Biosciences Article lsaa070, published 24 August 2020 replacement
Abstract: Individuals who are detained in prisons and immigration centers are exposed to a high risk of illness and death from COVID-19. These facilities generally contain both isolation units for those who are already infected and quarantine units for those who are suspected of having the virus.1 Even where individual inmates and detainees are not personally suspected of having the virus (such as would require assignment to the quarantine unit within the facility), virtually all those confined are at risk, due to close contact from overcrowding and multiple challenges in maintaining sanitation. Under these circumstances I argue for facility-wide applicability of principles of Quarantine Ethics that provide for adequate medical treatment and safe, healthful conditions of confinement.

Scott-Hayward, Christine S, 'Correctional and Sentencing Law Commentary: Compassionate Release, the First Step Act, and COVID-19' (2021) 57(1) Criminal Law Bulletin 89
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: The COVID-19 outbreak exacerbated all of the risks faced by elderly and sick people in prison. People who are older and those with chronic conditions, like many people in prison, are at higher risk from complications if they contract COVID-19, and less likely to receive adequate healthcare. Moreover, the main ways that people can protect themselves from contracting the virus--physical distancing, wearing masks, and frequent handwashing or hand-sanitizing--are far more difficult in a prison setting. As a result, there have been numerous reports of people who have tested positive for COVID-19 receiving inadequate or 'virtually no' care; tens of thousands of people in jails and prisons have been infected with the virus and thousands have died. For these reasons, compassionate release is more important than ever, as a release mechanism that can protect the health and lives of people in prison. After briefly reviewing the history of compassionate release in the federal system and explaining the changes made by the First Step Act of 2018, this commentary examines how the Bureau of Prisons and federal courts have used compassionate release to alleviate the risks to sick and elderly people in prison during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Setyadi, Yusef, 'Social and Security Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak in West Kalimantan Based on the Police Law Perspective' (2020) 20(1) Syariah: Jurnal Hukum dan Pemikiran 14-27
Abstract: There is a dilemma in implementing social distancing as a government policy program to stay at home. For this, the author analyzed the police law perspective, especially the role of the National Police in overcoming the problems during the enactment of government regulations. The study was conducted using primary and secondary data. Primary data obtained through observation and interview, while secondary data obtained through library research. The data was then analyzed qualitatively and presented descriptively. From the results, it was concluded that the impact of the Covid-19 outbreak in the area of West Kalimantan Province was relatively safe and well-controlled which was indicated by no extraordinary crimes there. Polices had carried out their duties in all aspects both in maintaining security and public, law enforcement, protection, guard, and community services.

Shayegh, Soheil and Maurizio Malpede, 'Staying Home Saves Lives, Really!' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3567394, 2 April 2020)
Abstract: As coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading around the world, many national and local governments have imposed social restrictive measures to limit the spread of the virus. Such quarantine measures in different cities across the world have brought a new trend in public safety improvement and crime reduction. Using daily crime reports in the US and European major cities, the aim of this project is to evaluate the effects of quarantine and 'shelter-in-place' policies on different crime categories. We adopt a difference in difference strategy to evaluate the change in crime rates. Early results from Oakland and San Francisco in the U.S. suggest a drop by about 40% across the communities and crime categories in both cities. While theft, homicide, and traffic accidents have fallen sharply, domestic violence incidents show no sign of reduction from our early observations. These trends although promising a glimpse of positive outcome for the community during the outbreak, may not have a lasting impact in the long term.

Sheptycki, James, 'The Politics of Policing a Pandemic Panic' (2020) 53(2) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 157-173
Abstract: This essay was completed in early April 2020 and begun during the first week of the official pandemic panic in Canada. The world-wide plague caused by the COVID-19 virus precipitated the first global police event presenting an occasion for researchers and scholars to apply existing theory and empirical understanding to extra-ordinary circumstances. Consideration of the politics of the police during the plague reveals a tectonic shift in the world system. The transnational and comparative study of police and policing reveals the contours of the emerging system of world power all the more clearly in a moment of crisis. The pandemic panic presents an historical moment during which, figuratively speaking, policing power crystalizes and can be seen clearly. On the global stage, in response to the pandemic panic authoritarian and totalitarian policing practices are demonstrated alongside those in putative democracies. Emerging and observable practices of rule by law are antithetical to democratic policing in the general social interest, and rule of law rhetoric justifying militarized law enforcement action in many places continues to bring police into further disrepute. The coming era will continue to be a time where, in most places

Shkabin, GS, AM Pleshakov and AD Nazarov, 'Problems of Criminal Law Provisions in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic' in Research Technologies of Pandemic Coronavirus Impact (RTCOV 2020) 513-517
Abstract: The current situation with the new coronavirus disease that modern humanity is experiencing is unprecedented. It brought many changes to various spheres of life. First of all, this concerns the development of medicine, chemistry, information technology, management, and organization of social processes. However, the sharp spread of the disease gave impetus to the legal regulation of public relations. Criminal legislation is no exception. The article analyzes the shortcomings and gaps in the general part of the criminal law's branch caused by the pandemic. The latter is considered as a source of danger to objects of criminal law protection. The most common cases of causing harm to objects of criminal law protection are analyzed. The authors gave a brief description of the changes in the criminal law of some states associated with the spread of the disease. The purpose of the article is to identify the shortcomings of the penal relations' legal regulation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to develop proposals for their elimination.

Shree Pant, Shiwanee, 'The Surge of Domestic Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3699388, 25 August 2020)
Introduction: Domestic violence is a violation of human rights where a person is abused by a partner or someone close to them. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a lot of mental distress and escalated the number of cases. This research aims to investigate what causes the surge in domestic violence and what can be done to stop it. Methods: Based on online researches and journals on domestic violence, its causes and impacts, a qualitative research was carried out to see what causes the surge in domestic violence, especially in times of disaster.Results: Analysis of the research demonstrated that the disruption in normalcy caused by disasters and the mental distress that follows might develop into violence. Conclusion: The research indicates that disruption of social and protective networks, and decreased access to services can exacerbate the risk of violence at home. On this basis, it is recommended that a safe and supportive environment is created for the victims of domestic violence. Further research is needed to identify what can be done to prevent domestic violence and protect the victims.

Siegler, Alison and Erica Zunkel, 'Rethinking Federal Bail Advocacy to Change the Culture of Detention' The Champion (Journal of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers) (forthcoming)
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: The federal bail system is in crisis, with three out of every four people locked in a cage despite the presumption of innocence. Disheartening as the numbers are, we defense attorneys have the power to free our clients through zealous advocacy at bail hearings. Bond advocacy is all the more important now. As the COVID-19 pandemic ravages federal jails, pretrial release has become a matter of life or death. All of us who represent clients in federal court have a responsibility to redouble our efforts to defend our clients' fundamental right to liberty. To change the culture of detention, we need to radically rethink our advocacy and ensure that all of the players follow the Bail Reform Act's defense-friendly rules. This article provides statistics to illustrate the contours and costs of the federal pretrial detention crisis and action steps for bringing federal pretrial detention practices back in line with the law. We can change the culture of detention by using the action steps, tethering our arguments to the statute and the data, and filing more bond motions.

Skolnik, Terry, 'Criminal Law During (and After) COVID-19' (2020) 43 Manitoba Law Journal (forthcoming)
Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments across the globe are implementing drastic physical distancing measures with wide-ranging implications. Courts are increasingly confronted with novel pandemic-related issues that are significantly altering the criminal justice system. This article explores the current and potential impacts of COVID-19 on three specific areas of the criminal law: the scope of certain crimes, bail, and punishment. It advances three core arguments. First, the pandemic creates a risk that courts will expand the breadth of crimes such as assault and aggravated assault for conduct such as coughing. It provides compelling reasons why courts must limit the scope of these criminal offences and why judges should not extend the legal framework that applies to HIV non-disclosure to COVID-19 transmissions. Second, the pandemic is changing the bail process. Due to COVID-19 outbreaks in detention centres, courts are rethinking whether pre-trial custody is necessary to maintain public confidence in the criminal justice system. More than ever, judges consider the interests of defendants and detainees when interpreting the concept of 'public confidence' - a positive change that limits recourse to pre-trial custody. Third, the pandemic is impacting sentencing as judges move away from custodial punishments. COVID-19 highlights why incarceration and financial penalties disparately impact defendants, which raises concerns regarding proportionality and retributive justifications for punishment both during and beyond the pandemic. Ultimately, this article shows why judges, policy makers, and justice system actors should seize on this unique opportunity to generate lasting positive changes to the criminal justice system that are taking place during the pandemic.

Sorabji, John and Steven Vaughan, '"This Is Not A Rule": COVID-19 in England & Wales and Criminal Justice Governance via Guidance' (2021) European Journal of Risk Regulation (advance article, published 9 February 2021)
Abstract: Soft law is an integral part of the efficient and effective functioning of public administration in England & Wales, with a long history of use. As such, its deployment per se as part of the regulatory response to COVID-19 in England & Wales is unremarkable. What is more striking, however, is the extent to which soft law was deployed, with over 400 pieces of 'guidance and regulations' created by the government in Whitehall, to say nothing of the other primary and secondary legislation passed to deal with the crisis. In this article, we do three things. First, we look at the place of soft law in administrative law in England & Wales. We then turn to the broad regulatory framework, including soft law, which governs the COVID-19 pandemic in our jurisdiction. This background then allows us, in the final part of this article, to take a deep dive into the criminal justice system. Here, we show how the senior judiciary predominately relied on soft law in the form of judicial guidance and protocols to manage the system. This was against the backdrop of targeted legislation that provided for an expansion of access to the criminal courts via video and audio links and also a limited number of Practice Directions that have the force of law. Our deep dive allows us to argue that the approach taken by the senior judiciary to the use of soft law during the COVID-19 pandemic has, in a number of ways, been more effective than that taken by the government. That being said there remains room for improvement, particularly as concerns the nature of the judicial guidance issued and clarity in terms of what guidance was in place and when.

Spencer, JR, 'COVID Coughing and the Criminal Law' (2020) 5 Archbold Review 5, 8-9
Jurisdiction: UK
Abstract: Examines the criminal offences that are potentially committed by persons carrying the coronavirus who deliberately cough over other people to scare or harm them. Refers to various offences under the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and relevant case law.

Spohr, Thomas, 'Criminal Law' [2020] (66) LSJ: Law Society of NSW Journal 97-98
Jurisdiction: Australia
Abstract: In 'Kennedy v R' [2020] NSWCCA 49 the Court of Criminal Appeal examined the sentencing range for ongoing supply - which is due to become a Table 1 offence soon - and held that at least in the circumstances of this case, no penalty other than a conviction was necessary. Some practitioners likely have health concerns which place them at particular risk if they contract COVID-19. Those practitioners may also feel compromised by the lengthy history of some matters, so that they don't feel they can withdraw, especially if there is no other representation available (for example in regional areas). 'Kahil v R' [2020] NSWCCA 56 provides at least a little guidance.

Stanojoska, Angelina and Goran Ilik, 'Penitentiary Institutions and COVID-19: How to Stop the Virus and Guarantee Human Rights?' (2020) 6 Journal of Liberty and International Affairs 80-92
Abstract: Starting the COVID-19 pandemic, physical and social distancing, besides wearing masks and frequent use of disinfectant, was and still is the most important preventive measure in stopping the spreading of the new coronavirus. Penitentiary institutions, especially the crowded ones, became a hard place to manage in stopping the infections. Why? Because these institutions are the ones where there is even more need to balance health protection with human rights. Using medical isolation and quarantine in the process of prevention of infections with SARS-CoV-2 virus, is complicated as result of the use of punitive solitary confinement as disciplinary sanction. The paper analyses the possible methods of protection of prisoners' health during COVID-19 pandemic with parallel protection and respect of their basic and guaranteed human rights.

Starodubov, Sergil, Viktoriia Vladyshevska and Maryna Pyzhova, 'Liability for Violation of Quarantine: Novelties of Administrative and Criminal Legislation' (2020) 9(2) Ius Humani Law Journal 137-158
Abstract: Public legislation has long failed to meet such large-scale challenges as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In emergencies, to protect the lives and health of the population, it is necessary to promptly make decisions on the legal regulation of public relations that have developed due to the spread of Covid-19. For this purpose, the state has created legal mechanisms that are designed to ensure compliance with the rule of law and which need the scientific-legal assessment. The objective of the work is to analyze the novelties of administrative and criminal legislation, which regulate the liability for violation of quarantine. The object of research is the norms of administrative and criminal law. The subject of the study is public relations that have developed as a result of the introduction of quarantine and which are governed by administrative and criminal law. To achieve this goal, the situation in foreign countries was firstly analyzed; general patterns were identified; alternative solutions were proposed, with a minimum restriction of human rights and freedoms. Then, the novelties of the national legislation were studied in more detail; additional specific problems were identified; and a more balanced legislative policy was proposed. As a result of the study, the current state of legal regulation in the areas of administrative and criminal law related to quarantine violations was analyzed; the liability for such offenses was characterized; some conclusions regarding the existing related problems were made and options for their solution were proposed, as well as propositions for modernization of legislation were made.

Stewart, Ashleigh, Reece Cossar and Mark Stoove, 'The Response to COVID-19 in Prisons Must Consider the Broader Mental Health Impacts for People in Prison' (2020) 54(12) Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1227-1228
Introduction: Prisons are an integral part of the global public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In light of typically over-crowded physical environments, prisons operating beyond their capacity and restrictions on freedom of movement, the introduction of COVID-19 in prisons and other custodial settings could be devastating. Effective COVID-19 infection control strategies in custodial settings have seen an emergent emphasis on physical distancing and quarantining (World Health Organization [WHO], 2020). These strategies are crucial to slow COVID-19 transmission; however, they also pose significant risk for people with mental illness in these settings. Rates of severe mental illness and mental health morbidity and mortality are substantially higher among people in prison compared to general populations. Therefore, the response to COVID-19 requires consideration of associated mental health implications to minimise adverse consequences for people in prison.

Stickle, Ben and Marcus Felson, 'Crime Rates in a Pandemic: The Largest Criminological Experiment in History' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 525-536
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has impacted the world in ways not seen in generations. Initial evidence suggests one of the effects is crime rates, which appear to have fallen drastically in many communities around the world. We argue that the principal reason for the change is the government ordered stay-at-home orders, which impacted the routine activities of entire populations. Because these orders impacted countries, states, and communities at different times and in different ways, a naturally occurring, quasi-randomized control experiment has unfolded, allowing the testing of criminological theories as never before. Using new and traditional data sources made available as a result of the pandemic criminologists are equipped to study crime in society as never before. We encourage researchers to study specific types of crime, in a temporal fashion (following the stay-at-home orders), and placed-based. The results will reveal not only why, where, when, and to what extent crime changed, but also how to influence future crime reduction.

Stoianova, Tatiana, Liudmyla Ostrovska and Grygorii Tripulskyir, 'COVID-19: Pandemic of Domestic Violence' (2020) 9(2) Ius Humani Law Journal 111-136
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of domestic violence in the context of Covid-19. The research is carried out for the first time in the focus of several sciences: psychology, sociology, and jurisprudence. To study the legal regulation of domestic violence, knowledge from different branches of law was used: international, criminal, administrative, and civil procedural law. Attention was paid to the historical retrospective--how the concept of domestic violence first appeared at the world level, and how it was differentiated and implemented in the national legislation of the participating countries. The problems of signing the Istanbul Agreement are highlighted. Special attention was paid to the current wave of domestic violence as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The prerequisites of a general psychological, social, and economic nature, their interdependence, and connection with the pandemic were investigated. The scale of the scourge of domestic violence in the context of a pandemic in different countries is indicated, and its short-term and long-term consequences for the well-being of the nation. The specific mechanisms for preventing family violence at three levels are considered: general criminogenic, a comprehensive mechanism for preventing violence at the level of interaction between the state and public organizations, and directly special means. The study concludes that Covid-19 pandemic has a direct impact on the exacerbation of domestic violence. The solutions are proposed, from legislative amendments to the redistribution of state and public forces to address the problem of domestic violence.

Stott, Clifford, Owen West and Mark Harrison, 'A Turning Point, Securitization, and Policing in the Context of Covid-19: Building a New Social Contract Between State and Nation?' 14(3) Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 574-578
Extract from Introduction: ... the measures taken by governments to control disease often produce outcomes that can threaten the very basis of functional democracy. In this commentary, we provide a brief analysis of some of the security implications of Covid-19

Strassle, Camila and Benjamin Berkman, 'Prisons and Pandemics' (SSRN Scholarly Paper No ID 3644635, 6 July 2020)
Jurisdiction: USA
Abstract: This Article examines the public health response to COVID-19 within federal and state prisons and local jails. Prisons and jails are often a hotbed of airborne infections like COVID-19 as a result of chronic overcrowding, unavoidably close living quarters, and incarcerated people's underlying health risk factors. Proposals for handling coronavirus vary but tend to include the incorporation of prevention measures within congregate settings as well as the return of individuals to their local communities in order to facilitate physical distancing. This Article identifies ethical tradeoffs and sets priorities for incarcerated people's return to communities. In Parts I and II, we provide background on why the COVID-19 pandemic is especially dangerous within correctional facilities and lay out the various enacted and proposed public health responses. In Part III, we provide moral, practical, and legal arguments for supporting the early release of incarcerated individuals that stand independently of specific views about criminal detention and theories of legal punishment. In the last part, we set priorities for which individuals to release first. These are individuals who (1) have low risk of recidivism for a violent offense, (2) are being held pretrial, (3) have high risk of mortality from COVID-19, (4) are nearing the end of their sentences, and (5) have custodial responsibilities to third parties.

Sun, Nina, Jason Rudall and Livio Zilli, 'The Use of Criminal Sanctions in COVID-19 Responses: Exposure and Transmission (Part 1)' in Barrie Sander (ed), Opinio Juris Symposium on COVID-19 and International Law (2020)
Abstract: This piece is split into two parts - the first focuses on criminalization of COVID-19 exposure and transmission, and the second on criminal sanctions for the enforcement of public health measures.

Sun, Nina, Jason Rudall and Livio Zilli, 'The Use of Criminal Sanctions in COVID-19 Responses: Enforcement of Public Health Measures (Part 2)' in Barrie Sander (ed), Opinio Juris Symposium on COVID-19 and International Law (2020)
Abstract: This piece is split into two parts - the first focuses on criminalization of COVID-19 exposure and transmission, and the second on criminal sanctions for the enforcement of public health measures.

Temprosa, Francis Tom and Darwin Simpelo, 'Rights under Lockdown: Not Releasing Vulnerable Prisoners in the Time of a Pandemic Is a Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment' Michigan Journal of International Law Online (forthcoming)
Abstract: This argues that the non-release of vulnerable prisoners in this time of a pandemic constitutes a cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment, a grave violation of the Torture Convention in international law. With the quick and far-reaching spread of the novel coronavirus or COVID-19, prisoners are among the most vulnerable people in the world. Prisoners face the real danger of COVID-19 while being held in environments that make basic health measures of personal protection and distancing impossible. While the situations of prisons, jails, and other detention centers in each country differs, there could be instances when the danger of being afflicted with the disease is grave and imminent in all carceral States.

Terziev, Venelin, Marin Georgiev and SM Bankov, 'Increasing the Risk of Corruption Activities during a COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020) 92(12) International Scientific Journal, Internauka 58-59
Abstract: The actions of the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Bulgaria are positively recognized not only by the Bulgarian society, but also by the previous European Commission in relation to the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism in the field of justice and home affairs. Thus, the last Monitoring Report on the progress of Bulgaria acknowledged the fulfillment of all criteria and the Commission expressed the opinion that the progress made by the Republic of Bulgaria on the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism is sufficient to meet the country's commitments made at the moment of EU accession. This opinion does not minimize the expectations for outcomes in the fight against corruption and organized crime in the country. Therefore the efforts of the law enforcement authorities in recent years will not remain on an occasional basis, but will impose a lasting trend to strengthen the rule of law in the Republic of Bulgaria.

Tessler, Hannah, Meera Choi and Grace Kao, 'The Anxiety of Being Asian American: Hate Crimes and Negative Biases During the COVID-19 Pandemic' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 636-646
Abstract: In this essay, we review how the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic that began in the United States in early 2020 has elevated the risks of Asian Americans to hate crimes and Asian American businesses to vandalism. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidents of negative bias and microaggressions against Asian Americans have also increased. COVID-19 is directly linked to China, not just in terms of the origins of the disease, but also in the coverage of it. Because Asian Americans have historically been viewed as perpetually foreign no matter how long they have lived in the United States, we posit that it has been relatively easy for people to treat Chinese or Asian Americans as the physical embodiment of foreignness and disease. We examine the historical antecedents that link Asian Americans to infectious diseases. Finally, we contemplate the possibility that these experiences will lead to a reinvigoration of a panethnic Asian American identity and social movement.

Travaini, Guido, Palmina Caruso and Isabella Merzagora, 'Crime in Italy at the Time of the Pandemic' (2020) 91(2) Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis 199-203
Background. The beginning of 2020 has been marked by a historic event of worldwide importance: the Coronavirus pandemic. This emergency has resulted in severe global problems affecting areas such as healthcare and the social and economic fields. What about crime? Purpose of the work. The purpose of this work is to reflect about Italy and its crime rate at the time of Coronavirus. Methods. Some crimes will be analysed (the 'conventional' ones only, ruling out health-related offences) in the light of data resulting from Ministries and Europol reports, as well as from newspapers and news. Results and conclusions. The outcome will be explained, and some criminological remarks will be added.

Turanjanin, Veljko and Darko Radulovic, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Possibilities for Criminal Law Reaction in Europe: A Review' (2020) 49 Iranian Journal of Public Health 4-11
Abstract: Coronavirus (COVID-19) is the newest dangerous contagious disease in the world, emerged at the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020. World Health Organization at the daily level publishes numbers of infected patients as well as several dead people around the world and in every region particularly. However, public health and criminal law are inevitably linked. National criminal laws in Europe mainly prescribe criminal offences for transmitting a dangerous contagious disease. Numerous states have closed their borders, quarantining their nationals that entering in the state. Strangers cannot enter in European Union. However, many do not abide by the restrictions, and people who have become ill with coronavirus walking the streets and committing a criminal offence. The authors in the work, in the first place, explain the connection between public health and criminal law and then elaborate criminal jurisdictions in Europe.

Viero, A et al, 'Violence against Women in the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Review of the Literature and a Call for Shared Strategies to Tackle Health and Social Emergencies' (2021) 319 Forensic Science International (advance article) Article 1106502
Abstract: The aim of this article was to conduct a rapid critical review of the literature about the relationship between violence against women (VAW) and the current COVID-19 pandemic. After the screening process, a total of 42 articles were considered. Our review confirmed that the 'stay at home' policies to contrast the pandemic have increased the problem of VAW, creating a 'shadow pandemic within the pandemic', as it was called by the United Nations. However, rigorous studies estimating the relationship between VAW and COVID-19 pandemic are scarce; most of the articles are commentaries, letters, editorials, and most of the published data derives from social media, internet, anecdotal evidence and helplines reports. Health care systems should promote further investigations into the relation between VAW and COVID-19, to identify creative solutions to provide clinical care and forensic services for victims of VAW.

Vose, Brenda, Francis T Cullen and Heejin Lee, 'Targeted Release in the COVID-19 Correctional Crisis: Using the RNR Model to Save Lives' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice769 - 779
Abstract: While the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected the lives of people around the world, select populations (e.g., elderly, immune-compromised, and incarcerated individuals) are among the most likely to contract the virus and among the least likely to overcome the illness and regain full health. This paper focuses on the incarcerated individuals and how the coronavirus has added a new and unprecedented threat to correctional facilities that are already overcrowded and ill-equipped to identify and address the medical needs of the inmate population. The risk-need-responsivity model (RNR) should be used to make empirically-informed decisions about the targeted release. The identification and release of inmates who pose the least threat to society will help alleviate some of the burdens associated with prison crowding. Specifically, with fewer inmates, correctional facilities can comply with social distancing guidelines, introduce enhanced cleaning measures, and make necessary institutional adjustments. In so doing they will limit the transmission of COVID-19 within correctional institutions, ensure the safety of staff and their charges, and enable prisons and jails to better accommodate the needs of the inmate population.

Weiss, Allison, 'Habeas Corpus, Conditions of Confinement, and COVID-19' (2020) 27(1) Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice 131-158
Abstract: Incarcerated individuals, worried about contracting the disease in prison without adequate healthcare and often serious health risks, have filed lawsuits challenging their incarceration in the age of COVID-19. Overall, very few have been successful. This virus has changed our world and the reality for those in prison. The traditional legal avenues available to incarcerated individuals to challenge their continued confinement are often ill-equipped to allow for comprehensive and expedited review. The author argues that during these unprecedented times, courts should recognize that the 'duty to defend the Constitution' requires them to grant motions for habeas corpus by the most vulnerable prisoners--those who are elderly or suffer from certain medical preexisting conditions--and that 'a public health emergency does not absolve [courts] of that responsibility.' To the contrary, the pandemic has underscored the necessity of courts to step into and embrace their roles as protectors of those who are currently unconstitutionally incarcerated.

White, Michael D and Henry F Fradella, 'Policing a Pandemic: Stay-at-Home Orders and What They Mean for the Police' (2020) 45(4) American Journal of Criminal Justice 702-717
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered life globally during the first 4 months of 2020. Many countries, including the United States, responded to the pandemic by issuing stay-at-home orders/shelter-in-place orders (SaHOs /SiPOs) to their citizens. By April 2020, more than 90% of the U.S. population was subject to an order. SaHOs /SiPOs raise a number of complex issues for the police, ranging from concerns about infringement of constitutional rights to potential sanctions for violations of an order. This article delves into the issues surrounding SaHOs /SiPOs and highlights their complexity for the police. First, we examine the 'why the police?' question, and point to key features of their role which make enforcement of SaHOs /SiPOs the proper business of the police. Second, we examine the relevant legal doctrines that can serve as the basis for police actions against violators of orders, most notably the special needs doctrine. Last, we offer police legitimacy as a lens for viewing the appropriateness of police responses to violators of SaHOs /SiPOs.

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